What is DNS

The DNS system, more commonly known as Domain Name System is basically responsible for translating the complicated series of numbers that make up an IP address in words that the user can easily remember.

Each web page is accessed by an IP address. The problem is that there are so many that it is virtually impossible to remember the IP address of each. Imagine that instead of introducing “” would have to enter in the browser an address like “”. It would be a very complex task enter the IP of each of the pages, an almost impossible task.

What is DNS

To solve this problem the DNS is used. This allows the use of names (also called domains) instead of IP for access to websites. Basically, in the Internet, the DNS is a set of large distributed databases on servers around the world that indicate what IP is associated with a name (i.e., an address of type

How does it work the DNS system

Internet DNS services are a set of databases on servers scattered around the world. These databases have the function of indicating the IP that is associated with a name of a website. When you enter an address in the search, for example,, the computer asks the DNS servers of the ISP you find the IP address associated with If the servers do not have that information, starts a search with other servers that may have that data.

What is DNS

Root server

To better understand the DNS, go to the following example: Suppose you access the website For this, the server verifies and directed towards the completion .com server, which in turn redirects the server to register the domain, which reports what the IP, that is, the server where it is located the web.

DNS Cache

Suppose you access a website that has not been located by your DNS service provider, so you had to do a search on other DNS servers (through the hierarchical search).

To prevent that search to be performed again when another provider user tries to access the same web, DNS service stores information for the first consultation.

Thus, when another request arises, the server will have already stored the IP belonging to that site. This procedure is known as “DNS cache”.

What is DNS

The Cache information is stored for a certain period of time through a parameter known for TTL (Time-To-Live). This is used to prevent the stored information is updated. The period of time varies according to the server TTL and your manager.


The use of the DNS is not limited to Internet. That resource can (and is) also used in local networks. Its implementation can be made in virtually any operating system and is very common in the Unix and Windows systems.

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What is a Wi-Fi router?

Most likely is that more than once we have observed with the corner of his eye that little box that is close to our PC, whose lights constantly blink to creating the magic that allows us to enjoy internet throughout the house wirelessly via a Wi Fi connection. That box, as we all know is a router. Except that most do not really know what function fulfills this device.

Basically, a router is a device used to distribute Internet signal among all local computers networked either via Ethernet through a cable, or by means of technology of Wi-Fi radio waves, causing the network is characterized by being wireless.

What is Wi-Fi router

By and large, both types of networks have advantages and disadvantages, but the fact is that most users often opt for wireless networks, mainly because they tend to be less expensive and easier to configure because it does not require tedious cable connections between the PCs and the router.

Of course, to use the Internet on computers that are part of the wireless network, the router also will require a modem. Through the modem, the Internet signal is received, so the wireless router must be connected to the modem to provide Internet access to the entire network.

However, it notes that in the current market there are also wireless routers have a built-in modem, which can be an excellent choice if we want to reduce the number of devices.

What is Wi-Fi router

In this regard, to make a good choice, before choosing a wireless router with built-in modem, we must know exactly the kind of Internet access that we have, if is cable type or if it is a DSL connection, because they are different technologies, and each works differently, and based on this data, choose the correct type of modem.

Another important point to note, as we mentioned above, is that the wireless routers operate using radio waves, which propagate in a circular pattern, i.e. start from the router and spread by the outside thereof. That is why it becomes important fact to take into account the signal strength and speed that can reach the device, because the stronger the signal, the better the connection.

What is Wi-Fi router

Neither we must forget that for this process to work, each desktop PCs, laptops and devices generally must have their own wireless Wi-Fi card inside, and if not we add an external portable device Wi- Fi that supports the same protocol as your wireless router.

What is a wireless USB Router?

When speaking of USB router, this term refers to devices that are used to share an Internet connection among multiple computers broadband, and are primarily designed to be used when a computer does not have an available Ethernet connection.

But the term “router USB” is also often used to refer to a device that connects to a PC that is connected to the Internet and share the connection with other machines wirelessly. This type of connection is known as an ad-hoc connection.

What is Wi-Fi router

Importantly, this type of configuration that requires an ad-hoc connection is much less flexible than the traditional with router, since it needs that the main computer is always on and connected to the Internet at all times to make the network work, because when the main computer is off, the other machines cannot access the connection.

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What is a router?

The router is one of the pillars of global communication and most users use their services without even knowing of its existence. They are much more common than we imagine, being present at home, office, in companies of all sizes and internet servers worldwide.

In short, one could say that the router is a device dedicated to the task of managing data traffic flowing through a network of computers. In this article we learn a lot about these essential devices.

What is router

Basically, any common computer can be transformed into a router. Linux is used as the operating system of some brands of routers and there are tutorials on how to transform your simple router into a super machine, just installing and configuring it correctly.

At home, a router can be used to share Internet (cable or ADSL) with other computers, providing firewall protection, control the quality of service and various other tasks, mainly in the field of security.

What is router

A wireless router provides access to the local network and Internet wirelessly to any device, either notebook, tablets or smartphone which is within range of the signal.

Most of wireless routers for home or small business, come with 4 ports for wired local network (LAN) and an Ethernet port to connect the modem Internet (WLAN port). So, simply, internet can be shared with any wireless device within range of the signal and that is configured for that.

What is router

An outstanding feature of some routers is their safety, as it is possible give permission through the physical address of the network, the Media Access Control Address (MAC Address), configure ports access to BitTorrent, Ares, and much more.

If a parent believes that his children should not surf the Internet at dawn, the router has controls to prevent navigation in certain hours. Internet control and network is available to the administrator of the router. And everything is done through a web interface on the device itself.

What is router

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How expand the range of your Wi-Fi router

As we know, the wireless range offered by the router may vary depending on the standard Wi-Fi connection that supports and the obstacles that may interfere between different connection points.

The 802.11n wireless standard, generally offer greater range, but even so it is possible that the signal does not reach all corners of our home or business. In this article, we will learn the way to improve the range of the Wi-Fi signal through a router into disuse.

How to extend WiFi range

The easiest way to get a better Wi-Fi signal throughout our area, it would of course buying all the necessary hardware, including WIFI devices such as repeaters, boosters or extenders, among other devices as wireless access points. With these elements, the task would be so simple that even a 6 year old could do it.

However, if we want to save some money of our budget, we can get it just using an old router and an Ethernet cable.

As an example we can take a building approximately 100 x 200 ft with some walls offering a major obstacle. Even so, we can still have Internet access in most of the facilities.

Achieving extend the range of the signal is very simple. As we know our Wi-Fi signal comes from a wireless router connected to the modem provided by our Internet operator.

How to extend WiFi range

All you have to do is connect a second wireless router Wireless-G to the main router using an Ethernet cable.

Use a second router as an access point

To begin the task, the first thing we have to do is differentiate routers. To do this, we will call “Router1” to the device that are already using the wireless LAN, and “Router2” the second router that will be used to increase the wireless range.

Setting “Router1”

Step 1. First we need to determine the IP address of “Router1”. To do this we must copy and paste the following command “cmd / k ipconfig” in the “Run” command box and write down on paper the value of “Default Gateway”, since that is the IP address of your router.

Let’s assume that the IP address of the router is Importantly, we must also write down on paper the value of the subnet mask, which is usually

How to extend WiFi range

Step 2. We run our favorite browser and enter the IP address “Router1” in the address bar.

At this point we may need to provide a password to access the router configuration. This may vary depending on the manufacturer of the router.

If we are not sure, we can use Google to know it by entering the following query: “router manufacturer default password”

Step 3. Once in the router configuration “Router1” tab, switch to the wireless configuration tab and annotate the wireless mode, SSID and channel.

How to extend WiFi range

In the case we have protected our Wi-Fi network with a password, we must also take note of the security mode (WPA, WEP and WPA2) and password.

Setting “Router2”

Step 4. First we have to reset the router to factory settings by pressing the reset button built into the device for about 10 seconds.

We connect “Router2” to our computer via the Ethernet cable. We plug one end of the cable into any available LAN port on the router and the other end to the Ethernet port on the computer. It is important to check that the router is turned on.

Step 5. Open the browser and enter the following address:, which is the IP address of the router default Internet “Router2”.

Once you access the router, you must change the values ​​of the default SSID, wireless mode, channel, security mode and password so they match the router “Router1”.

Then we move to “Settings> Advanced Routing” and change the current mode of “gateway” to “router”. You also need to disable the DHCP server, since “Router1” will handle the task of assigning IP addresses to devices connecting to the wireless network.

How to extend WiFi range

Step 6. Finally, it is also necessary to change the IP address of the router “Router2” any free address in our LAN. For example, if the IP address of the router “Router1” is, we assign “Router2” address without any problem.

We must also ensure that the subnet mask is the same as that provided in step 1.

Step 7. Save the settings.

Connecting routers

Now that we have configured both devices, it is time to physically connect them with cables. Chances are that “Router1” offers a 5-port configuration. The WAN port should be connected to the ISP modem provider.

We can now select any of the available ports on the router “Router1” and connect it to any of the LAN ports on the router “Router2” with an Ethernet cable. That simple.

Now that everything is set, we can connect our computer and mobile devices to the second router with a wired connection or Wi-Fi. Note that the remaining three ports are still available.

How to extend WiFi range

As we have assigned the same SSID and security settings for the second router, we should not set any parameters on the laptop while we are close to the emission source.

Moreover, as has just expanded the range of an existing wireless network and not create a new, all shared folders, libraries of music, pictures and other files will be accessible from all computers and mobile devices connected to the home network.

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Differences between Hub, Switch and Routers

Hub, switch and routers are names related with the hardware devices that enable that computers to connect to a network. This article will explain what the basic differences between each of these devices, and how to know which one to use in a given scenario.

Routers switch hub


The hub is an electronic device that is required to interconnect computers on a local network. Its operation is simple compared to the switch and the router: hub receives data from a computer and transmits to others. When this data transfer is running, no other computer on the network can send signals or data. Just computers can send or receive data when all transmissions are completed.

In a hub you can have multiple ports, i.e. inputs to connect network cables for each computer. Generally, there hubs with 8, 16, 24 and 32 ports. The number varies according to the model and manufacturer of the device.

Routers switch hub

The best feature of these devices is that if one cable is disconnected or broken, the rest of the network continues to fulfill its task. Currently, the hubs are being replaced by the switches due to the small difference in cost between both devices, and most benefit from the switches.


The switch is similar in appearance to the hub, however presents a big difference: the data from the source computer are only sent to the target computer. This is because the switches create a kind of exclusive channel of communication between the source and destination.

Thus, the network is not limited to a single computer in the transmission of information. This increases network performance because communication is always available, except when two or more computers try to send data simultaneously to the same machine. This feature also reduces errors such as data packets collisions, for example. As well as the hub, a switch has multiple ports and number varies with the price and the manufacturer.

Routers switch hub


The router is a electronic device used in networks of larger size. It is smarter and capable than the switch, because, besides fulfilling the same function, also has the ability to choose the best route to a given data packet must take to reach its destination. It is as if the network was a big city and the router chooses the shortest and least congested route. Hence this name.

Basically there are two types of routers:

Static: This router type is cheaper and is focused on always choose the shortest path for data, regardless of whether the selected route is congested or not.

Dynamic: This type is more sophisticated (and consequently more expensive) as they are able to determine if there are bottlenecks in the network, and from this analysis send data even for a longer route, but faster, avoiding congestion.

Routers switch hub

Another interesting feature of dynamic routers is that they are capable to perform data compression to increase the transfer rate.


Routers are able to interconnect various networks, and generally work in conjunction with hubs and switches. Usually they have extra resources, such as firewall, for example.

For those who want to set up a small network, connecting, for example, three computers, use of switches is most recommended as the price of these devices are substantially equivalent to those of hubs. If you share broadband internet, a switch may provide more stable connection.

Routers switch hub

An important fact: when looking hubs, switches or routers, always choose known brands. That can prevent future problems.

The implementation of routers is generally used in company networks (corporate networks). Besides being more expensive, they are also more complex to be managed, and should only be used if there are many computers on the network.

However, many users with Internet access via ADSL manage their routers and modems to share the Internet connection with all computers on the network, without the computer has to be on, only the modem or router.