network

Differences between HTTP and HTTPS

Surely more than one occasion we have heard of “HTTPS” but we’re not really sure what acronym means, and the truth is that neither we care too. This attitude can cause us a lot of serious problems related to the security of our data when we surf on the Internet, although we connect to the Internet through safe and reputable sites. In this article we will know what it means HTTPS and why that term is so important.

First of all, we must know that HTTPS is the safest way to surf the Internet, since any data that we introduce in the browser will travel encrypted and therefore cannot be analyzed for use in both commercial and criminal purposes.

HTTPS vs HTTP

Main differences between HTTP and HTTPS

HTTP

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a system used in network systems, designed with the purpose to define and standardize the syntax and semantics of the transactions carried out between the various teams that make up a network.

The main feature of this protocol is that it is a forward-type operation “request-response” system, which means that the structure must be a client and a server, with the client who make the requests and the server giving the answers. The server responses can be both downloading a file or opening a web page, depending on the type of request made.

Basically, once we access with a browser to a web address and press the “Enter” key, the server responds by returning us the desired data.

HTTPS vs HTTP

Secure HTTP

In the case of Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS), the system is based on a combination of two different protocols, HTTPS and SSL / TLS.

This is the safest and most reliable way to access content that offers the web, since any data or information that we introduce will be encrypted, which guarantees that data cannot be seen by anyone except for the client and the server, nullifying thus the possibility that it may be used by the cybercriminal, because all you have in your hands the offender will be encrypted data, which cannot decipher.

HTTPS vs HTTP

How we can see, the use of the HTTPS protocol is of vital importance to any activity involving the use of personal data as those used in banks, online stores, e-mails and elsewhere in which we should enter passwords, numbers credit card or other personal information.

Certificates

For the system to work, you must implement the scheme “Certificate”, having to be duly signed by an authority. In the case of web browsers, this method is transparent to the user because the necessary certificates to be able to browse the Internet without problems are obtained with the browser.

In the table below, we can see the main differences between HTTP and HTTPS protocols:

HTTP HTTPS
URL starts with “http: //” URL starts with “https: //”
Port 80 is used for communication Port 443 is used for communication
No warranty Insured
It works at the application level It works at the transport layer
without encryption certified
No required certificates Prescribed certificate

 

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What is the IP address?

Every computer connected to the Internet (or to any network) has a unique ID, called an IP address (Internet Protocol), consisting of four combinations of numbers (eg 187.25.14.190), which serves the purpose of identifying our computer from hundreds of millions of devices worldwide.

These numbers, called bytes, can be more than four billion different directions. Each of the four bytes has a specific purpose. The first two groups generally refer to the country and network type (class). This number is a unique identifier in the world together with the time and date can be used, for example, by the authorities, to know the place of origin of a connection.

What is a IP address

To better understand the relationship between IP address and the Internet, first we must know that means the abbreviation TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). A network protocol is like a language, if two people are talking in different languages, ​​if two people speak in different languages, none will understand what the other party says.

With computers, something similar happens, two computers that are physically connected by a network must “speak” the same language for a understands the requirements of the other computer. The TCP protocol standardizes the exchange information flow between computers and enables communication among them. Today, is the most important protocol since is the standard Internet protocol.

The TCP protocol contains the basis for communication of computers within a network. Just as humans, when they want to talk to other humans, they must first search and identify them, the network computers also have to be located and identified. At this point, enter the IP address. The IP address identifies a computer on a given network.

What is a IP address

Across the IP address, we know to what network belongs the computer, and specifically, which is the computer with which we are exchanging information. Briefly, the IP address allows us to know safely the identity of the computer with which we are treating.

How does it work?

The IP addresses can be fixed or dynamic. Currently, fixed IPs are rare, because most times are unsafe. Static IP addresses can be exploited by attackers because the number is always the same. To avoid this, the dynamic IP are used.

Basically, the dynamic IP addresses system rotate the address as follows: a Internet service provider has a X number of available IP addresses. Each time a machine connects to the Internet, the provider assigns a random IP address within a number of IP addresses available. The process used for this distribution more dynamic IPs is the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

What is a IP address

To access the URLs, or public IP addresses as we know, (eg https://easytechnow.com/), are used the so-called DNS (Domain Name Server), a data base responsible for the translation of alphanumeric names into IP addresses, essential to the functioning of the Internet as you know today.

Notably that there are IP addresses that are, as a rule, reserved for specific uses. The IP 0.0.0.0 is a number of standard network; how the IP address 127.0.0.1 is used to test a local connection, for network problems diagnoses.

IP address classes

The IP address is a 32 bit number which in practice we always see segmented into four groups of 8 bits each (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx). Each 8-bit segment varies from 0-255 and are separated by a point.

This division into segments enables IP number classifying IP addresses into 5 classes: A, B, C, D and Y. Each class of address allows a number of networks and computers within these networks.

In networks Class “A” the first 8 bits of the address are used to identify the network, while the other three segments of 8 bits each are used to identify computers.

An IP address class A allows the existence of 126 networks and 16,777,214 computers per network. This is because for Class A networks were reserved by the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) IDs “0” to “126”.

Class A IP addresses

What is a IP address

In Class B networks the first two segments of the address are used to identify the network and the last two segments identify computers within these networks.

A class B IP address allows the existence of 16,384 networks and 65,534 computers per network. The ID of these networks begins with “128.0” and goes to “191255”.

Class B IP addresses

What is a IP address

Class C networks use the first three segments of address as a network identifier and only the last segment to identify the computer.

A class C IP address allows the existence of 2,097,152 networks and 254 computers per network. The ID of such network starts at “192.0.1” and ends with “223255255”.

Class C IP addresses

What is a IP address

In Class D networks all segments are used to identify a network and their addresses range from “224.0.0.0” to “239.255.255.255” and are reserved for so-called multicast.

And class networks as well as class D, used all segments as network IDs and addresses begin with “240.0.0.0” and go to “255.255.255.255”. Class Y is reserved by IANA for future use.

We must make some considerations about directions Class ID “127” are reserved for Loopback, or for internal testing in networks. All computer equipped with a network adapter has a loopback address, the address 127.0.0.1 which is only seen only by himself and used for internal testing.

Static IP and Dynamic IP

Static IP

The static (or fixed) IP is an IP number permanently assigned to a computer, that is, its IP address does not change, unless such action is carried out manually. For example, the fixed IP are used for some ADSL ISP, which assigned a static IP to some of its customers. Thus, whenever a customer is connected, you use the same IP on the Internet. This practice is becoming less common among access providers, by a number of factors, including security issues.

What is a IP address

Dynamic IP

The dynamic IP, meanwhile, is a number that is assigned to a computer when it connects to the network, number that changes every time the connection is established. For example, suppose you is now connected to Internet with your computer. When you connect morning, you will be assigned a different IP. To better understand, imagine the following scenario: A company has 40 networked computers. Using dynamic IPs, the company provides 40 IP addresses for those computers. Since no IP is fixed, when a computer “comes” in the network, it is assigned an IP of the 40 that is not being used by any other computer.

It is more or less like internet providers work. Every time you connect to the Internet, your ISP gives your computer an IP that is idle. The most widely used method for distributing dynamic IPs is the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).

Differences between Hub, Switch and Routers

Hub, switch and routers are names related with the hardware devices that enable that computers to connect to a network. This article will explain what the basic differences between each of these devices, and how to know which one to use in a given scenario.

Routers switch hub

Hub

The hub is an electronic device that is required to interconnect computers on a local network. Its operation is simple compared to the switch and the router: hub receives data from a computer and transmits to others. When this data transfer is running, no other computer on the network can send signals or data. Just computers can send or receive data when all transmissions are completed.

In a hub you can have multiple ports, i.e. inputs to connect network cables for each computer. Generally, there hubs with 8, 16, 24 and 32 ports. The number varies according to the model and manufacturer of the device.

Routers switch hub

The best feature of these devices is that if one cable is disconnected or broken, the rest of the network continues to fulfill its task. Currently, the hubs are being replaced by the switches due to the small difference in cost between both devices, and most benefit from the switches.

Switch

The switch is similar in appearance to the hub, however presents a big difference: the data from the source computer are only sent to the target computer. This is because the switches create a kind of exclusive channel of communication between the source and destination.

Thus, the network is not limited to a single computer in the transmission of information. This increases network performance because communication is always available, except when two or more computers try to send data simultaneously to the same machine. This feature also reduces errors such as data packets collisions, for example. As well as the hub, a switch has multiple ports and number varies with the price and the manufacturer.

Routers switch hub

Routers

The router is a electronic device used in networks of larger size. It is smarter and capable than the switch, because, besides fulfilling the same function, also has the ability to choose the best route to a given data packet must take to reach its destination. It is as if the network was a big city and the router chooses the shortest and least congested route. Hence this name.

Basically there are two types of routers:

Static: This router type is cheaper and is focused on always choose the shortest path for data, regardless of whether the selected route is congested or not.

Dynamic: This type is more sophisticated (and consequently more expensive) as they are able to determine if there are bottlenecks in the network, and from this analysis send data even for a longer route, but faster, avoiding congestion.

Routers switch hub

Another interesting feature of dynamic routers is that they are capable to perform data compression to increase the transfer rate.

 

Routers are able to interconnect various networks, and generally work in conjunction with hubs and switches. Usually they have extra resources, such as firewall, for example.

For those who want to set up a small network, connecting, for example, three computers, use of switches is most recommended as the price of these devices are substantially equivalent to those of hubs. If you share broadband internet, a switch may provide more stable connection.

Routers switch hub

An important fact: when looking hubs, switches or routers, always choose known brands. That can prevent future problems.

The implementation of routers is generally used in company networks (corporate networks). Besides being more expensive, they are also more complex to be managed, and should only be used if there are many computers on the network.

However, many users with Internet access via ADSL manage their routers and modems to share the Internet connection with all computers on the network, without the computer has to be on, only the modem or router.