The basic computer components

Basically, a computer is composed of two fundamental components, which complement each other, and that might not work without each other’s presence.

These two elements are the Hardware and Software, and is the purpose of this article analyze the most important differences between them. Let’s begin.

Computer components


The computer hardware can be defined as all physical parts or materials that can see and touch. For example, the monitor, keyboard, mouse, hard disk, case memory, screws, plastics and other physical parts. That is, the device itself with its internal and external parts.

We could simply define the computer as a box to which a number of devices are connected, also known as “peripherals” used to enter and retrieve information. The case to which we refer is the brain of the computer and is where the information is processed.

Computer components


In very general terms we could understand the software such as “set of instructions that computers use to manipulate and process data”.

Without the software, the computer would be a set of devices without any usefulness, as would our body without a brain to tell him what to do with arms, legs, mouth, etc.

The system software such as operating systems are programs that allow information processed by the production or application software are transformed into understandable instructions for the hardware components. That is, its function is to communicate Hardware elements with various programs we use to perform specific tasks.

Computer components

Some of the most widely used operating systems today are:

  • Windows
  • Linux
  • Mac OS
  • Android

Productivity software

The productivity software are packages of orders and instructions that it serving a particular function or task as, for example, processing a text, perform mathematical calculations, process and view images and videos and surf the Internet, among any others tasks.

Computer components

Some of the widely used productivity software today are:

  • Internet Browsers (Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chorme, Opera and others)
  • Word processing (Word, OpenOffice Writer, etc.)
  • Worksheets (Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, etc.)
  • Presentations (Power Point and others)

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What is DNS

The DNS system, more commonly known as Domain Name System is basically responsible for translating the complicated series of numbers that make up an IP address in words that the user can easily remember.

Each web page is accessed by an IP address. The problem is that there are so many that it is virtually impossible to remember the IP address of each. Imagine that instead of introducing “” would have to enter in the browser an address like “”. It would be a very complex task enter the IP of each of the pages, an almost impossible task.

What is DNS

To solve this problem the DNS is used. This allows the use of names (also called domains) instead of IP for access to websites. Basically, in the Internet, the DNS is a set of large distributed databases on servers around the world that indicate what IP is associated with a name (i.e., an address of type

How does it work the DNS system

Internet DNS services are a set of databases on servers scattered around the world. These databases have the function of indicating the IP that is associated with a name of a website. When you enter an address in the search, for example,, the computer asks the DNS servers of the ISP you find the IP address associated with If the servers do not have that information, starts a search with other servers that may have that data.

What is DNS

Root server

To better understand the DNS, go to the following example: Suppose you access the website For this, the server verifies and directed towards the completion .com server, which in turn redirects the server to register the domain, which reports what the IP, that is, the server where it is located the web.

DNS Cache

Suppose you access a website that has not been located by your DNS service provider, so you had to do a search on other DNS servers (through the hierarchical search).

To prevent that search to be performed again when another provider user tries to access the same web, DNS service stores information for the first consultation.

Thus, when another request arises, the server will have already stored the IP belonging to that site. This procedure is known as “DNS cache”.

What is DNS

The Cache information is stored for a certain period of time through a parameter known for TTL (Time-To-Live). This is used to prevent the stored information is updated. The period of time varies according to the server TTL and your manager.


The use of the DNS is not limited to Internet. That resource can (and is) also used in local networks. Its implementation can be made in virtually any operating system and is very common in the Unix and Windows systems.

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What is a Wi-Fi router?

Most likely is that more than once we have observed with the corner of his eye that little box that is close to our PC, whose lights constantly blink to creating the magic that allows us to enjoy internet throughout the house wirelessly via a Wi Fi connection. That box, as we all know is a router. Except that most do not really know what function fulfills this device.

Basically, a router is a device used to distribute Internet signal among all local computers networked either via Ethernet through a cable, or by means of technology of Wi-Fi radio waves, causing the network is characterized by being wireless.

What is Wi-Fi router

By and large, both types of networks have advantages and disadvantages, but the fact is that most users often opt for wireless networks, mainly because they tend to be less expensive and easier to configure because it does not require tedious cable connections between the PCs and the router.

Of course, to use the Internet on computers that are part of the wireless network, the router also will require a modem. Through the modem, the Internet signal is received, so the wireless router must be connected to the modem to provide Internet access to the entire network.

However, it notes that in the current market there are also wireless routers have a built-in modem, which can be an excellent choice if we want to reduce the number of devices.

What is Wi-Fi router

In this regard, to make a good choice, before choosing a wireless router with built-in modem, we must know exactly the kind of Internet access that we have, if is cable type or if it is a DSL connection, because they are different technologies, and each works differently, and based on this data, choose the correct type of modem.

Another important point to note, as we mentioned above, is that the wireless routers operate using radio waves, which propagate in a circular pattern, i.e. start from the router and spread by the outside thereof. That is why it becomes important fact to take into account the signal strength and speed that can reach the device, because the stronger the signal, the better the connection.

What is Wi-Fi router

Neither we must forget that for this process to work, each desktop PCs, laptops and devices generally must have their own wireless Wi-Fi card inside, and if not we add an external portable device Wi- Fi that supports the same protocol as your wireless router.

What is a wireless USB Router?

When speaking of USB router, this term refers to devices that are used to share an Internet connection among multiple computers broadband, and are primarily designed to be used when a computer does not have an available Ethernet connection.

But the term “router USB” is also often used to refer to a device that connects to a PC that is connected to the Internet and share the connection with other machines wirelessly. This type of connection is known as an ad-hoc connection.

What is Wi-Fi router

Importantly, this type of configuration that requires an ad-hoc connection is much less flexible than the traditional with router, since it needs that the main computer is always on and connected to the Internet at all times to make the network work, because when the main computer is off, the other machines cannot access the connection.

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What is a router?

The router is one of the pillars of global communication and most users use their services without even knowing of its existence. They are much more common than we imagine, being present at home, office, in companies of all sizes and internet servers worldwide.

In short, one could say that the router is a device dedicated to the task of managing data traffic flowing through a network of computers. In this article we learn a lot about these essential devices.

What is router

Basically, any common computer can be transformed into a router. Linux is used as the operating system of some brands of routers and there are tutorials on how to transform your simple router into a super machine, just installing and configuring it correctly.

At home, a router can be used to share Internet (cable or ADSL) with other computers, providing firewall protection, control the quality of service and various other tasks, mainly in the field of security.

What is router

A wireless router provides access to the local network and Internet wirelessly to any device, either notebook, tablets or smartphone which is within range of the signal.

Most of wireless routers for home or small business, come with 4 ports for wired local network (LAN) and an Ethernet port to connect the modem Internet (WLAN port). So, simply, internet can be shared with any wireless device within range of the signal and that is configured for that.

What is router

An outstanding feature of some routers is their safety, as it is possible give permission through the physical address of the network, the Media Access Control Address (MAC Address), configure ports access to BitTorrent, Ares, and much more.

If a parent believes that his children should not surf the Internet at dawn, the router has controls to prevent navigation in certain hours. Internet control and network is available to the administrator of the router. And everything is done through a web interface on the device itself.

What is router

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WiMAX, the wireless internet of the future

We talk about Wi-Fi? Well, let’s brush up what it is. Today, the standard for wireless Internet is the Wi-Fi, which is summarized in the following: an antenna array radiates a signal and equipment with this technology that are within the range of antennas Wi-Fi (called “Hot spots”) can connect to wireless Internet, a transfer rate bandwidth (the maximum allowed for that system is 54 Mbps).

Thanks to this feature, in certain parts of the world this technology had extensive development, which led to forming a kind of social movement, with users communities, each with its antenna trying fully cover a sector of a community or neighborhood. Why is it necessary to have several members of a community for this? Because the Wi-Fi antennas have a maximum range of 150 meters, which in practice is reduced to about 90.

What is Wimax

And here is the point of the matter: the new WiMax technology proposes higher speeds (up to 124 Mbps) and, most important, each antenna of this system expands its range of 150 meter to 44 miles. The thing obviously changed. Even more so when you consider that when WiMAX is in full swing, the promise is that the cost of installation of antennas and equipment is lower than the current Wi-Fi.

With the promised range of 50 to 70 kilometers, another panorama opens. Wireless Internet no longer be an exclusively urban attraction (a situation that is unavoidable and necessary to put antennas each 90 meters), on the other hand, Internet could be brought into suburban and rural areas where cable installation is even more difficult by the low number of users. For this reason it is that India is one of the major stakeholders in the WiMAX, to bring broadband (and telephony, and associated services) low cost to more distant areas.

What is Wimax

Some technical details of the WiMAX

  • Name: WiMAX comes from “Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access”. The name is the “mask” of the technical definition of the standard 802.16a, a new wireless standard that was approved in 2001 by the WiMAX Forum, which brought together more than 60 companies in the sector.
  • High bandwidth: A base station can simultaneously allow access to more than 60 clients with T1-type connectivity / Y1 hundreds of homes with DSL connections.
  • Protocol independence: can carry IP, Ethernet, ATM and more.
  • Services added: can transmit Voice over IP (VoIP), data, video, etc.
  • Compatibility: supports phone masts third generation (3G) (called smart antennas) that constantly point to the receiver, although moving.

The future of WiMAX

As mentioned, members of the working group of the IEEE 802.16 standard are investing in the development of portability and mobility. The IEEE 802.16y will fixed correct but also portable and mobile base specification to enable not only the operation. The working groups of the IEEE and IEEE 802.16g 802.16f are responsible for the management interfaces of fixed and mobile operation.

What is Wimax

In this scenario fully in motion, users can move data while accessing broadband or multimedia session streaming. All these features will help make that WiMAX is an even better solution for Internet access in developing countries.

How it works WiMAX?

Internet provider sets up a WiMAX base station to few Km. from your city. To access this service, you just need a computer suitable for WiMAX or to upgrade your current computer to get the necessary support.

Each user will have a special code to obtain access to the station-base. The base station will transmit data from the Internet to your computer (with a current modems that potentially higher speed).

The cost of this service will be much lower than the current high-speed Internet because the provider need not use cables or have facilities to provide service.

In the case of a home network, things would not be very different. The WiMAX base station-send data to a WiMAX router, which send data to computers on your network. You can also combine WiFi and WiMAX by having the router send data to computers via Wi-Fi.

What is Wimax

WiMAX is not only a threat to providers of DSL and cable Internet. The WiMAX protocol is designed to provide different data transmission methods, one of them is the VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol).

VOIP allows even international via an Internet connection broadband local calls, long distance and. If the WiMAX service does become a consumer service, using VOIP can increase increasingly. Virtually anyone with a laptop could make VOIP calls.

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