hardware

The basic computer components

Basically, a computer is composed of two fundamental components, which complement each other, and that might not work without each other’s presence.

These two elements are the Hardware and Software, and is the purpose of this article analyze the most important differences between them. Let’s begin.

Computer components

Hardware

The computer hardware can be defined as all physical parts or materials that can see and touch. For example, the monitor, keyboard, mouse, hard disk, case memory, screws, plastics and other physical parts. That is, the device itself with its internal and external parts.

We could simply define the computer as a box to which a number of devices are connected, also known as “peripherals” used to enter and retrieve information. The case to which we refer is the brain of the computer and is where the information is processed.

Computer components

Software

In very general terms we could understand the software such as “set of instructions that computers use to manipulate and process data”.

Without the software, the computer would be a set of devices without any usefulness, as would our body without a brain to tell him what to do with arms, legs, mouth, etc.

The system software such as operating systems are programs that allow information processed by the production or application software are transformed into understandable instructions for the hardware components. That is, its function is to communicate Hardware elements with various programs we use to perform specific tasks.

Computer components

Some of the most widely used operating systems today are:

  • Windows
  • Linux
  • Mac OS
  • Android

Productivity software

The productivity software are packages of orders and instructions that it serving a particular function or task as, for example, processing a text, perform mathematical calculations, process and view images and videos and surf the Internet, among any others tasks.

Computer components

Some of the widely used productivity software today are:

  • Internet Browsers (Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chorme, Opera and others)
  • Word processing (Word, OpenOffice Writer, etc.)
  • Worksheets (Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, etc.)
  • Presentations (Power Point and others)

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What is the Chipset?

Most likely is that we have heard the “Chipset” word countless times, and most users know that it is an essential component that is hosted on the motherboard of our PC. However, it may be that we ignore how this little device soldered to the motherboard works or what its real importance in the hardware of the PC. In this article we will disclose it.

For those who still not know the meaning of the word “chipset“, basically is a group of integrated circuits that are welded to the board of the motherboard.

What is the chipset

What is your function?

The chipset is responsible for filing the correct connection between the motherboard and various essential components of the PC, such as the processor, video cards, RAM and ROM memories, among others.

For this reason, the existence of the chipset is essential for that our computer to work, since it is responsible for sending orders between the motherboard and processor, so that both components can achieve work with harmony.

In short, it is this small element that allows the motherboard is the backbone of the entire system of hardware of our PC, and allows constant communication between various components, through the use of buses.

In the other hand, the chipset has a direct and permanent communication with the processor, and is responsible for managing the information going in and out through the main processor bus. Even their role extends to the RAM and ROM memory and video cards.

What is the chipset

In order to allow the motherboard to interface with the main components of the PC through the chipset, this element is usually made based on standard interfaces that can provide support to various devices of different brands.

PC Chips

In the early use of the word chipset, when old computers Commodore 64 and Atari 8-bit is used, the motherboard available a single chip that had been designed exclusively for that platform, so it did not provide adequate support for components.

Over the years, and after the great advances in the field of computers, motherboards began to include many chips, each with a different function, and providing adequate support for all types of components.

This multitude of chips not only handle interconnect the motherboard with the processor and memory, but also communicate various elements of the PC, to perform control mass storage drives, sound, graphics, plus any other boards.

What is the chipset

Incorporating all these chips into the motherboard has resulted in a great benefit to the operation of the equipment, as when dealing with certain control tasks and process management allows the motherboard is free to perform other tasks .

Currently, there are two types of chipset: the Northbridge and Southbridge called that not only are characterized by being located on opposite ends of the motherboard, but it also ordered to perform different tasks.

The Northbridge

The Northbridge chip is the responsible for interfacing the microprocessor and RAM, controlling all access tasks between these elements and the PCI and AGP ports. At the same time, the Northbridge maintains a permanent communication with the Southbridge.

Southbridge

The Southbridge chip is the responsible for communicating the processor with all peripherals connected to the computer.

What is the chipset

Also, its function also resides in controlling the various devices that are associated with the motherboard such as USB ports, floppy drive, optical drives, hard drives, and so on.

Despite the vital importance of having the chipset on the motherboard in the correct operation of the PC, the fact is that for years has been one of the least important elements, when in fact the chipset usually determine the characteristics of many models motherboards sold in the market today.

What is the chipset

Today, the most important chipset manufacturers are Intel, NVIDIA, Silicon Integrated Systems, AMD, ATI Technologies and VIA Technologies.

If you want to know about the different elements that make up the hardware of a computer, please click on this link which will take you directly to all this information.

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Inkjet Printers

The ink jet printers are one of the most widely worldwide used printing technologies thanks to its flexibility, performance and low operating cost and end user price.

These characteristics determine that these devices are present in all areas where there is a computer, both at home and in the office and industry. This article looks at the basics of its operation.

Inkjet printers

The printers use inkjet systems are equipped with a print head with tiny holes throwing ink drops, led by a program that determines how many ink drops and when should be released.

Colors

The mixture is important for the formation of color, and it is why color ink jet cartridges usually have three colors (cyan, magenta and yellow) besides black, forming all colors from the mixture of these four inks.

The photo-quality printers can work with up to 12 colors (light magenta, cyan, light black, dark blue, orange, red and green among others) to achieve greater fidelity in color gradations. The fidelity of the image depends the technology used and the quality of the ink.

Technologies

Bubble jet or thermal

In this technology, the printer heats small amounts of ink at a temperature of about 500° C. With warming a bubble is formed and forces ink droplets leaving the nozzles. The process takes about 20 millionths for each drop formed.

That is the system used by manufacturers such as Hewlett-Packard, Lexmark, Xerox and Canon. The mechanism is in the ink cartridge, making the value of the cartridge is more expensive, but less maintenance and use of all content, because it is under pressure. The resolution is good, and has an optimal cost / benefit ratio.

Inkjet printers

Piezoelectric

System used by Epson, uses a piezoelectric crystal that changes shape with electricity. Thus, the crystal generates sufficient pressure to expel a small drop of ink, very small, reaching very high resolutions, with almost imperceptible gradations of color.

The printing mechanism is in the printer cartridges, being the cartridges just ink reserves, but with an ink flow based on suction. This system accept dye inks or pigmented base. Its resolution is optimal, but has the disadvantage that the heads may become blocked if that is not used regularly.

Ink Types

Base Colorant

They are soluble molecules in a base colored ink forming a true solution, completely homogeneous and stable. They are fairly inexpensive, and are used both as original cartridges recharged, its durability is average and it is not waterproof.

Inkjet printers

Pigmented

Are insoluble colored particles that are dispersed, usually by additives, so that they remain almost stabilized and homogeneous suspension. Epson and other manufacturers to use in their original cartridges.

The definition of colors is greater than the dye ink, and also durability, used papers with good quality becomes higher the 10 years.

Because of its high degree of water resistance, it is also used in transfer papers, widely used for printing t-shirts, shirts and other fabrics.

Inkjet printers

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How to build a PC: Tools and choice of accessories

No doubt that the assembly of a computer can become one of the most exciting experiences. While it is a complicated process, it is not necessary to be an expert to carry it out, nevertheless clearly that we must carry on with the utmost care. Here we tell you all the steps to achieve it.

There are several reasons why many users choose to build with its hands their own PC. Note that the assembly of a computer is no longer as difficult as it was years ago, so it is a task that anyone can undertake without practically problems.

How to buid a PC

Mounting a PC from scratch brings us a lot of benefits. In principle costs, because the fact is that the construction of our own equipment are significantly cheaper than buying one preassembled. In addition with the same budget we can access a truly superior computer to the offered in the store, and we can even choose to purchase high quality components.

On the other hand, a PC built by us can be easily customizable, upgradeable and even upgradeable, which will bring as many years of life of the equipment. Let’s not forget also, when we assemble our own PC, at the same time we are learning a lot about the hardware.

Very well, if you’ve decided to build your computer, here are some tips and steps to achieve your mission properly.

It is noteworthy that before starting to assemble the team, we must put on an anti-static wrist strap to prevent static electricity discharges on the components, which can irreparably damage the parts of the equipment.

How to buid a PC

We can also discharge any static electricity produced by our body by land, for example, maintaining contact with a metal component cabinet.

Another fundamental aspect is to look after the area in which we will work, since it must be large enough to allow us to move comfortably, and also allow us to place on a flat surface the different elements to be used during assembly. Ideally, work on a wooden surface.

Also is extremely important that before you start assembling a computer, we carefully read all the manuals provided by the manufacturer of each component, so as not to damage them during assembly.

How to buid a PC

The elements used

About the work area must have not only the cabinet and the various internal components that build up the new PC, but also must have available the following items:

  • Multistep screwdrivers and sizes
  • Some additional screws
  • Cleaning cloth
  • Isopropyl Alcohol to clean
  • A small plier long tips
  • A flashlight (optional)

Before starting the assembly, it is advisable to clean the components and the various surfaces of the cabinet with cloth and isopropyl alcohol, to remove any accumulated dust and dirt.

Choice of accessories

Once we have all the essential elements of the future PC, i.e. CPU, Motehrboard, RAM, video card and hard disk, then it is time to start choosing the cabinet or box containing all these elements.

Cabinet

In general, a variety of very good cabinets at very low prices currently on the market, of course we can also choose to purchase a brand known cabinet, but we must bear in mind that when dealing with high-end products, its value will be much higher.

How to buid a PC

It is also important that we choose a cabinet that includes plenty of islands to add several hard drives and optical disk drives, because it is possible that in the future we desire to incorporate more than one of these elements.

With regards to the connectors where we will plug the microphone, headphones and speakers, the ideal is that they are located in the front of the cabinet, as this will give us easier access to switch audio devices.

Choosing optical drive

While the DVD drive is not as important today, as they have been replaced by memory cards and pen drives, is likely that we require a CD/DVD drive to install the programs and the operating system.

By acquiring an optical drive, we can also come to consider buying a modern product that includes Blu-ray technology. While it is true that Blu-ray drives are significantly more expensive than DVD, keep in mind that a unit of this type will be a step further in technology, also it will allow us to play movies and other videos in high definition.

How to buid a PC

It is important to mention that when it comes to external storage, an excellent option is to use memory cards, which although they are more expensive, provide greater physical security to stored content.

In addition we note that today almost all devices we have at home usually include an SD card, so an excellent option is to add to the PC we’re building a 3.5 module with card slots, which can be located in the cabinet spaces available for HD or CD/DVD drives.

The last but not least

It is desirable that in the list of sourcing for our PC we include some more items that will be critical to enjoy the computer. This is where we must choose peripherals and accessories that accompany the computer:

Wi-Fi card or adaptor: We can choose to include in the PC case an Wi-Fi internal board, or add an external device such as dongle. More about that here.

Microphones: According to the use that we think give this peripheral, we can choose to purchase a cheap mic or choose something more expensive that allows us to make high quality recordings. Find more information here.

How to buid a PC

 Speakers: The quality and cost of a pair of speakers depends exclusively on the use we will give, as well as the budget we have available. They are indispensable for videoconferencing, watch videos and play music.

Webcams: is a fundamental device if we use the PC to communicate via video, so we invite you to read more information here.

Another accessory that should not be overlooked is the acquisition of a power stabilizer, as it will help us to protect the computer from fluctuations in the power supply.

How to buid a PC

Finally, and no less important, is to choose the operating system you install on brand new PC. But for this, we must first assemble the team, so get to work!

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How to build a PC: Assembly Step by Step

Although it seems an incredibly difficult task, build a computer from scratch is a task that if we start with patience and a little knowledge, we can do it without any inconvenience, although our knowledge in computers is basic.

Mounting a PC from scratch brings us a lot of benefits. In principle the costs. There is no doubt that build our own computer to be significantly cheaper than buying one pre-built. In addition with the same budget we can access a truly superior computer than those offered in stores, and we can even choose to purchase high quality components. It is why in this article we will find all the necessary steps to build a PC, including safety instructions and tools needed to undertake the task.

How to build a PC

Before beginning, we must ensure we have the right tools for the task. Fortunately, tools are not difficult to obtain, since it most likely is that we have at home.

  • Screwdrivers (multiple sizes and types)
  • Some additional screws
  • Cleaning cloth
  • Isopropyl Alcohol to clean
  • Long-nose pliers
  • A flashlight (optional)

Once you have collected necessary, it is time to start.

Step 1: The power supply

In principle, if we have acquired a cabinet that did not include power supply, the first step is to mount the power supply case to the chassis of the cabinet. This we must do considering that the fan points away from the box, to the rear of the cabinet, and that the color cables facing inside of the box. Once placed, it must be fastened with screws.

How to build a PC

Step 2: Install the processor

Although it is possible to install the processor once the motherboard be attached to the chassis of the cabinet, it is best mount the processor before fixing the motherboard on the chassis

First thing we do is identify the socket where the processor which is readily detectable be located, as usually it is large and has several circular holes, in addition to the indication of the acronym ZIF.

The correct location of the processor will be defined according to the alignment of the slot. The CPU has a mark in one of its corners that allow us to put the processor correctly. Obviously this mark must exactly match the one that has the socket.

How to build a PC

Carefully put the processor on the socket, and without exerting much pressure we insert the pins of CPU into the slots socket. For this we do not force, just let the CPU “fits” into the socket. In the event that this does not happen, possibly are due to the processor has some of its bent pins, which can straighten carefully with the help of a flat screwdriver.

Then, move down the socket lever, for that the processor is firmly attached to the motherboard.

How to build a PC

Once the task is finished, and only if the processor does not include factory sink, we mount one on the CPU, through the anchors that includes the socket. It is likely that before placing the sink, we need distribute thermal paste with fingers, carefully to form a thin film on the processor, avoiding that too much pasta to accumulate, and then just be able to place the sink.

Anyway it is always advisable to purchase a processor that includes a sink factory, in order to avoid mistakes of beginners.

Step 3: Mount the motherboard into case

The following will mount the motherboard to the chassis of the cabinet, for that, we only need align properly the motherboard to the holes including in the chassis, and then fix it with the screws that come standard with the cabinet.

We must ensure that the various connectors are properly located, in order to subsequently be able to mount the plates necessary for our computer.

Step 4: Install RAM modules

RAM modules can be mounted before or after placing the motherboard in the chassis of the cabinet. That depends on the decision of each.

Once we identify the banks for RAM, we must carefully place each module on them and push it slowly and without exerting force until we hear a click.

How to build a PC

That sound will let us know that RAM is installed correctly.

Step 5: Attach cables

Before continuing to introduce components, it is advisable to connect some cables to the motherboard. In principle we must connect the motherboard to the power supply.

It is also convenient connect the cables on the front panel of the cabinet, both the power and reset buttons, as LEDs, USB and other ports. To do this it is best to resort to the motherboard manual, which states clearly how they should be connected according to the motherboard model.

Step 6: Expansion cards installation

If we have decided to include some extra PC board, as it can be a video card, a Wi-Fi or Ethernet, this is the precise moment to mount.

How to build a PC

To do this we must identify the PCI-E, PCI or AGP slots in which the card must be mounted. It is placed so that the pins match with the connector, and then we pressed without force until hear the click that indicates that has been fixed in place.

Step 7: Install devices

The following will connect the devices, and first will be the hard disk. This should be placed on the support having the chassis, and once properly secured with the appropriate screws, initiate the connection.

Notably, all storage devices have two connections, one to the motherboard and the other to the power supply. We must then connect the power cord from the power supply to the hard disk slot, and then connect the cable SATA drive to the motherboard.

Basically, in the case of the optical means we should perform the same steps.

How to build a PC

Step 8: Before closing, sort all the cables

Patience, already almost done. Before closing the cabinet, we must fix and accommodate cables that may have become loose. To do nothing better than use elastic bands or seals, which besides good aesthetics, will provide good security to internal components.

We take a last look and a final check to verify that all cables and connections are properly adjusted, and we can put the cabinet tops.

Step 9: The decisive moment

It only remains now connect peripherals to the CPU, i.e. the monitor, keyboard and mouse, as well as the cable for electrical power.

If all goes well, and the team on, just subtract configure the computer and begin installing the operating system that we have chosen.

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What is the difference between a 32 bit and 64-bit PC?

One of the questions often ask those who have to change a computer, or doing installations or upgrades to the operating system or software user, is about the type of architecture that runs internally equipment. We have surely heard about if a processor or operating system version is 32 or 64 bits, but unfortunately these numbers mean nothing to us.

This is precisely the objective of this article, provide information on this subject so we can all know exactly are related to these figures and what its practical applications for daily work, since a wrong implementation of any of these platforms in certain tasks may result in a waste of money or even in a major loss of productivity.

Differences between 32 and 64 bits

Before starting

As a first step, it should be noted that the terminology “PC 32 or 64 bits” refers to both the processor architecture and operating system used to process the data, i.e. both things go hand in hand, at least in most the cases. That said, we started the full article.

Main differences between 32- and 64-bit

Basically, the main difference between a 32-bit processor and a 64-bit processor is that the first is able to process bit sequences up to 32 bit, while 64-bit processors may extend to twice this capacity.

As we know, a PC processor is responsible for conducting all logical and mathematical calculations to get the results requested by the user, and thus must manage information packets at a certain rate.

At this point the main difference between both platforms is that in the case of 64-bit processors, these can work with twice the information in the same clock cycle that a processor of 32 bits, allowing them can access higher capacity memory and process much larger blocks of data, increasing by this way the performance and speed of the overall process.

Differences between 32 and 64 bits

Another difference, and why many professional systems prefer a 64-bit architecture, is that this type of processors can address theoretically up to 16 exabytes of memory while the 32-bit processors can only address 4Gb, more than enough amount of RAM for desktop computers in an office, but for more complex systems is a too low amount of memory.

As for Windows operating systems, the most important difference between versions 32 and 64 bits is that the first supports up to 4Gb of RAM, but which can only be used 3.25 Gb. In the case of 64-bit operating systems, can address up to 192 Gb of RAM.

A stark choice: What PC must I buy? A computer of 32 bits or one of 64 bits?

The first thing to think about when evaluating the purchase of a PC, especially if you are in doubt about which of the available PC architectures choose, is what is the use that will give the new computer.

In the event that only we use for common tasks in home or office, i.e. surfing the net, reading mail, making spreadsheets or write a document, a computer and operating system with a 32-bit architecture is enough because we should not subject the equipment to very complex tasks.

Differences between 32 and 64 bits

In addition the processing capacity of a 64-bit system costs a lot more money, and if we will not need this extra capacity, is useless to spend the extra cost of this type of 64-bit architectures to waste it.

Now, if we are professionals in some specialized area as the graphic design, architecture, engineering, video editing or other contexts where it is necessary more computing capacity beyond the usual, then the best choice is to have a 64-bit system, since this architecture can work with larger and complex numerical operations than a 32-bit system, type of architecture that will have to split the operations and instructions in various sequences, subtracting performance and capacity system-wide calculations, which does not happen in a 64-bit architecture, since is able to process more number of operations at the same time, making it much more stable and faster to the whole.

Differences between 32 and 64 bits

Migrating from a 32-bit to a 64-bit

If we are evaluating the possibility to migrate from a 32-bit system to a 64-bit, one of the first things we have to think about is in the software compatibility, i.e. programs and hardware drivers. It is extremely important that before starting with migration we are very sure that all our hardware such as cameras, scanners, printers and everything else, have a 64-bit version of its drivers. Otherwise, if you do not want to complicate, will touch go buy new hardware.

If we take into consideration the warnings of Microsoft on this point, install a hardware controller of 32-bit in a 64-bit version of the operating system, may result in errors or until even the device does not work. In the case of user programs, a software developed for a 32-bit platform can function normally on a 64-bit OS, but we will not have that extra capacity provided by these systems.

Differences between 32 and 64 bits

Fortunately, most programs, at least the best known, offers versions for 64-bit platforms, which has also allowed the expansion of this type of architecture, the same happens with the leading manufacturers and device drivers.

Another thing we have to consider is that if we want to migrate to a 64-bit architecture from a version of Windows 32 bits, it cannot be done by an upgrade or patch, will have to buy a specific version for that architecture. Of course if you use a free operating system like Debian or its derivatives like Ubuntu, migration not be a problem.

Conclusion

As we have seen, a 64-bit computer can be the ideal solution for all users that manipulate large amounts of data because of the way this architecture processes information.

Now, if we are users who only use the computer to perform basic tasks and little more, and never demand the computer with things too complex, a 32-bit is the answer to our needs, what also liberates us of a series of problems as the mentioned incompatibility of controllers and software.

In short, if you do not take advantage the benefits of 64-bit, spending it means to have this platform will not be justified in any way.

The computer functions

A computer is basically a device whose primary function is to process large amounts of data with great speed and accuracy, task is accomplished by hardware components, ie the physical part, and software, which are programs. A PC can perform many complex tasks, and for that uses a set of instructions, the aforementioned software, that basically are orders that the computer must process through the hardware, producing an output data an understandable format for its users.

As mentioned, a computer is composed of two subsystems, hardware and software, where the first of which comprises the computer itself and all peripherals input and output, including keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer and other, while the software subsystem includes the operating system, which is responsible for translating what we do to PC language, and all user programs, i.e. office suites, design software, modeling, mathematical software, and many others.

Computer functions

What does “process information”?

The action of “process” is related to the act to modify or transform something from its original state to a new one. The computer can process information from different types: text, numbers, images, sounds, and many others sources. The information you work the computer must be entered by the user.

The computer ability for data process can be summarized through the following basics:

Store information:

The computer has the ability to store, in a small space, large amount of information that otherwise would have to print in thousands of paper sheets.

Computer functions

Organize information:

This feature gives the user the option to sort or organize the information according to their own needs and requirements. By this way, we can find and examine documents and data the number of times we want.

Retrieve Information:

His great ability to store information would be useless if we cannot quickly and easily retrieve and examine it. In this regard, the computer offers us the possibility to check instantly and accurately any information you have previously saved on it.

Computer functions

Transmitting information:

One of the most important features of the computer is the ability to share information between users quickly, securely and accurately. This fantastic feature depends on whether our computer is connected to the Internet or local network.

Computer Processor

In this article we will talk about the processors used in computers, but it is good to clarify that are also present in other electronic devices, including your phone, and in many others electronic devices used currently. The processor, or CPU, as it is called, is the most important component of the system, responsible for processing all the information. Basically, it is the “brain” of the computer.

Virtually everything passes through their circuits, since this chip is responsible for executing all instructions requested by the user or the system. The faster your processor, the faster will be executed instructions.

Computer Processor

The processor is the component where it is used the latest technology. The largest producers of processors in the world, are large companies with technology to manufacture competitive computer processors: Intel (which dominates the market), AMD, Via and IBM, which makes processors for other companies like Transmeta.

Some of the newer models, and having the most advanced technology currently are the Intel Core Sandy Bridge processors, in their variables i3, i5 and i7, and the AMD models Fusion and FX, which can include up to 8 cores.

Computer Processor

Processors mentioned above cover virtually all desktop computing needs, while for portable devices such as cell phones and tablets, large companies make ARM, Atom, Tegra2 and Snapdragon processors.

The processor is the most complex, and often most expensive, component, however the CPU cannot do anything alone. Like all brain, needs a body, which is formed by the other computer components, including memory, hard disk, video card and network monitor, keyboard and mouse, among others.

Computer Processor

Why fans are used?

Generally, the processors, because of their structure and speed, generates too much heat, and to avoid the overheating, coolers are used, also called fans.

In today’s computers the processor cooling is done through a heat sink made of aluminum or copper, with a small fan on and an air duct that push hot air out of cabinet.

About the process of cooling a PC on the Internet we have much info available, which can be useful to evacuate any doubt.

How to understand the nomenclature of processors

The two largest manufacturers of processors are Intel and AMD. Each of these companies adopted a specific nomenclature to grant consumer information from the processor name. Apparently the nomenclature of these processors is somewhat unclear, but with a little care we can identify many of its features.

Computer Processor

Let’s start by Intel nomenclature

In the case of the prestigious Intel, all the Quad Core processors, (which has 4 cores) begins with the letter Q, Quad. For example: Q9550, Q8400s, Q9300.

All Dual Core processors (that has 2 cores) begins with the letter Y. For example, Y7500, Y6750, Y4700.

Computer Processor

The nomenclature of the powerful Intel Core iX is hierarchically divided as follows:

  • Core i7 Processors high-performance (and high cost)
  • Core i5 Processors intermediate performance
  • Core i3 Processors basic performance

Nomenclature of Intel processors iX

If it is a Atom processor type, it means it was developed and manufactured for use in low performance devices such as netbooks or EeePCs.

If it is a Xeon processor type, it means it was developed and manufactured for high-performance servers.

If the processor you’re buying is a Celeron CPU, means that this is a processor of low performance and low cost. These Celeron processors are normally part of the cheapest computers, and generally are cropped versions of powerfull CPUs.

Computer Processor

AMD nomenclature

In the case of processors made by AMD, every CPU that ends with X2, X3 and X4 has 2,3 or 4 cores respectively. For example: Athlon 64 X2 4400.

Note that in the AMD processors always find a number in front of the name of the processor, however this does not mean that the frequency or CPU clock speed, it is just the model name.

The versions that have FX name at the end of the multiplier are released, making them ideal for overclocking.

Computer Processor

Another model is called AMD Sempron processor, which is a very basic CPU, which offers little performance to be a single-core processor, which otherwise makes them very cheap. Note that none of Sempron processor is a Dual Core CPU type.

Regarding to one of the most important product lines of AMD, the so-called Phenom processors, you need to determine which there are two main processors, the Phenom and Phenom II, the latter being the most powerful, and most expensive of both.

Computer Processor

Another processor were made exclusively for notebooks is the Turion 64 CPU, which is a low-power version of the AMD Athlon 64 processor intended for this kind of devices and It was at the time an commercial response to Intel Centrino platform.

AMD also has extensive experience in developing powerful processors for servers, a clear example of this is the line of Opteron processors, which was also a response to the line of server processors Intel Xeon.

Computer Processor

Who are the best processors each manufacturer?

While buying a processor should not only analyze the clock frequency, or the energy consumption, as these numbers are only part of the specifications.

If you do not pay attention, many processors vendors will try to confuse when we offer CPUs if we are not informed. They can offer a 3.2 GHz processor asserting that it works better than a 2.6 Ghz processor, when the 2.6 GHz processor is a Dual Core, and the 3.2 Ghz processor only has a single core.

Always analyze the processor with the highest number (provided they are of the same brand) in the case of Intel and AMD’s latest (Dual, Quad and Core iX; Phenom II and Athlon II). For instance:

  • P 8400, P8500, P8600. What’s better? Which has the largest number.
  • Phenom II X4 920 and Phenom II X4 955. What is the best? The higher number.

Just be careful when compare processors of different brands.

Input devices: The mouse

The mouse is a device designed to be operated by hand by the user. It works by moving or dragging it on ​​a flat surface. These movements are transmitted to the computer through a cable or wirelessly, using various technologies such as laser and optical sensors.

The mouse operation is as simple as moving from one place to another in an area to the point you want to select. If the user drags the mouse to the right, this movement will be reproduced and represented on the monitor screen by a symbol (icon) that mimics the movement. In practical terms, the mouse is like an extension of your hand, which is “introduced” on the monitor screen of our computer.

Input Device The Mouse

The mouse movements are represented on the screen by an icon known as “pointer”. Generally the pointer is shaped like an arrow, but sometimes can assume other according to the program you are using or the function that is fulfilled. The pointer would be like the hand, which can select objects, take them, drag them, and execute programs and documents, among others.

In computing over time they have invented words to name and describe the actions that can be performed with the mouse. Following are the most important.

Input Device The Mouse

Slide or drag

This name was assigned to describe the action of moving the mouse in any direction on the surface of the pad.

Click or clicking

This denomination refers to the action of pressing and releasing with the index or middle finger, as appropriate, one of the mouse buttons (right or left). This word is used because somehow mimics the sound that occurs when pressing the buttons on the mouse.

Input Device The Mouse

Make Double Click

This curious name was assigned to refer to action of pressing and releasing, in quick succession, twice the left mouse button. This action is generally related to the function of activating a software application or open a file, folder or menu.

What is hardware and Software?

A computer, also called PC, is a device that allows us to process information and calculate results, of course that this classic definition is somewhat outdated, as it is currently very wide range of tasks that can be performed with this device.

Currently with a computer, we can draw, write, play and communicate with others around the world without matter the distance, and being faithful to the original definition, we can process information using pure data through software programs.

Hardware and Software

Are hundreds of thousands the applications that we can install on a computer, each user can choose the necessary software that best fits your needs and requirements for each task begins.

What is a computer?

Basically a computer consists of two parts: hardware and software.

The hardware is a generic term used to designate all physical component parts of a computer, namely the cabinet, monitor, motherboard, RAM, processor, video card and others.

In the other hand, the software is the code in form of program responsible for providing the necessary instructions to the computer to perform a certain action. This category includes the operating system, games, device drivers, etc.

What is the hardware?

As well as the computer is divided into hardware and software, the hardware is also divided into two categories, called basic hardware and complementary hardware.

While the basic hardware includes all the necessary components for the operation of the computer, such as motherboard, monitor, keyboard and mouse, being in this case the motherboard, RAM and CPU the most important components of the whole.

Hardware and Software

On the other hand we have the complementary hardware, hardware that is not needed for a computer to function normally. Examples of such hardware are printers, scanners, flash drives and others.

Another way to differentiate the type of computer hardware is based on the role within it. In the following paragraphs we will know how this hardware are divided.

Input Devices: Devices that allow the entry of information to the computer.

Chipset: Chip integrated on the motherboard, the chipset allows traffic information between the microprocessor and other components that make up the PC.

Hardware and Software

CPU: This device has the task of interpreting and executing instructions sent from the operating system, and manages the requests made by users through the programs.

Hardware and Software

RAM: The RAM, acronym of Random Access Memory, is where the computer stores the programs, data and results processed by the CPU, allowing quick retrieval by the system, providing better performance than retrieving it directly from the hard disk.

Hardware and Software

Storage drives: This devices are intended for storing data both the user and the system. I.e. they are the physical space where are stored the files of the operating system, programs and user documents. These can be hard disks, CD, DVD or Blu Ray, flash drives or external removable drives.

Hardware and Software

Output Devices: These are the devices that show the user the results of its operations. This group includes monitors, printers and everything that serves the purpose of offering the user the ability to see the result of their work.

Hardware and Software

Mixed devices: This group includes all those devices that are capable of receiving and delivering information. Examples of these devices are network cards, modems and communication ports, among others.

Hardware and Software

What is the software?

The software is a computer code written in a programming language and compiled in the form of application that you use to perform a particular task. Also as in the case of hardware, the software should be divided into categories based on the role within the system.

Software Concepts

The software basically is a sequence of instructions that are interpreted and / or implemented to manage, redirect or modify a data / information or event.

Software is also a product which is developed by software engineering, and includes not only the program for your computer, but also manuals and technical documentation. Currently, these manuals generally are provided in PDF format.

Hardware and Software

Computer software applications comprises a sequence of instructions that is interpreted and executed by a processor or a virtual machine. In a functional software, that sequence follows specific standards that result in a certain behavior.

In our computer, all applications we use are software: Windows, Outlook, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and even the antivirus apps.

A software can be executed by any device capable of interpreting and executing instructions for which it is created. When software is represented as instructions that can be executed directly by a processor, we say that is written in machine language.

The execution of a software can also be performed through an interpreter, responsible program to understand and execute each of its instructions. A special category of interpreters and remarkable are the virtual machines such as the Java (JVM) virtual machine.

Hardware and Software

The best-known device that has a processor is the computer. Nevertheless, there are other programmable machines such as mobile phones, industrial automation machines, etc.

Software Rating

System Software: This group includes the operating system, device drivers, system utilities and all the tools necessary to control the specific characteristics of these computers.

Software Implementation: It is called application software to all programs used by the user to perform a particular task. This group includes the office software, graphic design, accounting and electronic, to cite just one small fraction of all categories of applications that we can find in the market.