dhcp

What is the IP address?

Every computer connected to the Internet (or to any network) has a unique ID, called an IP address (Internet Protocol), consisting of four combinations of numbers (eg 187.25.14.190), which serves the purpose of identifying our computer from hundreds of millions of devices worldwide.

These numbers, called bytes, can be more than four billion different directions. Each of the four bytes has a specific purpose. The first two groups generally refer to the country and network type (class). This number is a unique identifier in the world together with the time and date can be used, for example, by the authorities, to know the place of origin of a connection.

What is a IP address

To better understand the relationship between IP address and the Internet, first we must know that means the abbreviation TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). A network protocol is like a language, if two people are talking in different languages, ​​if two people speak in different languages, none will understand what the other party says.

With computers, something similar happens, two computers that are physically connected by a network must “speak” the same language for a understands the requirements of the other computer. The TCP protocol standardizes the exchange information flow between computers and enables communication among them. Today, is the most important protocol since is the standard Internet protocol.

The TCP protocol contains the basis for communication of computers within a network. Just as humans, when they want to talk to other humans, they must first search and identify them, the network computers also have to be located and identified. At this point, enter the IP address. The IP address identifies a computer on a given network.

What is a IP address

Across the IP address, we know to what network belongs the computer, and specifically, which is the computer with which we are exchanging information. Briefly, the IP address allows us to know safely the identity of the computer with which we are treating.

How does it work?

The IP addresses can be fixed or dynamic. Currently, fixed IPs are rare, because most times are unsafe. Static IP addresses can be exploited by attackers because the number is always the same. To avoid this, the dynamic IP are used.

Basically, the dynamic IP addresses system rotate the address as follows: a Internet service provider has a X number of available IP addresses. Each time a machine connects to the Internet, the provider assigns a random IP address within a number of IP addresses available. The process used for this distribution more dynamic IPs is the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

What is a IP address

To access the URLs, or public IP addresses as we know, (eg https://easytechnow.com/), are used the so-called DNS (Domain Name Server), a data base responsible for the translation of alphanumeric names into IP addresses, essential to the functioning of the Internet as you know today.

Notably that there are IP addresses that are, as a rule, reserved for specific uses. The IP 0.0.0.0 is a number of standard network; how the IP address 127.0.0.1 is used to test a local connection, for network problems diagnoses.

IP address classes

The IP address is a 32 bit number which in practice we always see segmented into four groups of 8 bits each (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx). Each 8-bit segment varies from 0-255 and are separated by a point.

This division into segments enables IP number classifying IP addresses into 5 classes: A, B, C, D and Y. Each class of address allows a number of networks and computers within these networks.

In networks Class “A” the first 8 bits of the address are used to identify the network, while the other three segments of 8 bits each are used to identify computers.

An IP address class A allows the existence of 126 networks and 16,777,214 computers per network. This is because for Class A networks were reserved by the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) IDs “0” to “126”.

Class A IP addresses

What is a IP address

In Class B networks the first two segments of the address are used to identify the network and the last two segments identify computers within these networks.

A class B IP address allows the existence of 16,384 networks and 65,534 computers per network. The ID of these networks begins with “128.0” and goes to “191255”.

Class B IP addresses

What is a IP address

Class C networks use the first three segments of address as a network identifier and only the last segment to identify the computer.

A class C IP address allows the existence of 2,097,152 networks and 254 computers per network. The ID of such network starts at “192.0.1” and ends with “223255255”.

Class C IP addresses

What is a IP address

In Class D networks all segments are used to identify a network and their addresses range from “224.0.0.0” to “239.255.255.255” and are reserved for so-called multicast.

And class networks as well as class D, used all segments as network IDs and addresses begin with “240.0.0.0” and go to “255.255.255.255”. Class Y is reserved by IANA for future use.

We must make some considerations about directions Class ID “127” are reserved for Loopback, or for internal testing in networks. All computer equipped with a network adapter has a loopback address, the address 127.0.0.1 which is only seen only by himself and used for internal testing.

Static IP and Dynamic IP

Static IP

The static (or fixed) IP is an IP number permanently assigned to a computer, that is, its IP address does not change, unless such action is carried out manually. For example, the fixed IP are used for some ADSL ISP, which assigned a static IP to some of its customers. Thus, whenever a customer is connected, you use the same IP on the Internet. This practice is becoming less common among access providers, by a number of factors, including security issues.

What is a IP address

Dynamic IP

The dynamic IP, meanwhile, is a number that is assigned to a computer when it connects to the network, number that changes every time the connection is established. For example, suppose you is now connected to Internet with your computer. When you connect morning, you will be assigned a different IP. To better understand, imagine the following scenario: A company has 40 networked computers. Using dynamic IPs, the company provides 40 IP addresses for those computers. Since no IP is fixed, when a computer “comes” in the network, it is assigned an IP of the 40 that is not being used by any other computer.

It is more or less like internet providers work. Every time you connect to the Internet, your ISP gives your computer an IP that is idle. The most widely used method for distributing dynamic IPs is the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).

How expand the range of your Wi-Fi router

As we know, the wireless range offered by the router may vary depending on the standard Wi-Fi connection that supports and the obstacles that may interfere between different connection points.

The 802.11n wireless standard, generally offer greater range, but even so it is possible that the signal does not reach all corners of our home or business. In this article, we will learn the way to improve the range of the Wi-Fi signal through a router into disuse.

How to extend WiFi range

The easiest way to get a better Wi-Fi signal throughout our area, it would of course buying all the necessary hardware, including WIFI devices such as repeaters, boosters or extenders, among other devices as wireless access points. With these elements, the task would be so simple that even a 6 year old could do it.

However, if we want to save some money of our budget, we can get it just using an old router and an Ethernet cable.

As an example we can take a building approximately 100 x 200 ft with some walls offering a major obstacle. Even so, we can still have Internet access in most of the facilities.

Achieving extend the range of the signal is very simple. As we know our Wi-Fi signal comes from a wireless router connected to the modem provided by our Internet operator.

How to extend WiFi range

All you have to do is connect a second wireless router Wireless-G to the main router using an Ethernet cable.

Use a second router as an access point

To begin the task, the first thing we have to do is differentiate routers. To do this, we will call “Router1” to the device that are already using the wireless LAN, and “Router2” the second router that will be used to increase the wireless range.

Setting “Router1”

Step 1. First we need to determine the IP address of “Router1”. To do this we must copy and paste the following command “cmd / k ipconfig” in the “Run” command box and write down on paper the value of “Default Gateway”, since that is the IP address of your router.

Let’s assume that the IP address of the router is 192.168.30.1. Importantly, we must also write down on paper the value of the subnet mask, which is usually 255.255.255.0.

How to extend WiFi range

Step 2. We run our favorite browser and enter the IP address “Router1” in the address bar.

At this point we may need to provide a password to access the router configuration. This may vary depending on the manufacturer of the router.

If we are not sure, we can use Google to know it by entering the following query: “router manufacturer default password”

Step 3. Once in the router configuration “Router1” tab, switch to the wireless configuration tab and annotate the wireless mode, SSID and channel.

How to extend WiFi range

In the case we have protected our Wi-Fi network with a password, we must also take note of the security mode (WPA, WEP and WPA2) and password.

Setting “Router2”

Step 4. First we have to reset the router to factory settings by pressing the reset button built into the device for about 10 seconds.

We connect “Router2” to our computer via the Ethernet cable. We plug one end of the cable into any available LAN port on the router and the other end to the Ethernet port on the computer. It is important to check that the router is turned on.

Step 5. Open the browser and enter the following address: 192.168.1.1, which is the IP address of the router default Internet “Router2”.

Once you access the router, you must change the values ​​of the default SSID, wireless mode, channel, security mode and password so they match the router “Router1”.

Then we move to “Settings> Advanced Routing” and change the current mode of “gateway” to “router”. You also need to disable the DHCP server, since “Router1” will handle the task of assigning IP addresses to devices connecting to the wireless network.

How to extend WiFi range

Step 6. Finally, it is also necessary to change the IP address of the router “Router2” any free address in our LAN. For example, if the IP address of the router “Router1” is 192.168.30.1, we assign “Router2” address 192.168.30.2 without any problem.

We must also ensure that the subnet mask is the same as that provided in step 1.

Step 7. Save the settings.

Connecting routers

Now that we have configured both devices, it is time to physically connect them with cables. Chances are that “Router1” offers a 5-port configuration. The WAN port should be connected to the ISP modem provider.

We can now select any of the available ports on the router “Router1” and connect it to any of the LAN ports on the router “Router2” with an Ethernet cable. That simple.

Now that everything is set, we can connect our computer and mobile devices to the second router with a wired connection or Wi-Fi. Note that the remaining three ports are still available.

How to extend WiFi range

As we have assigned the same SSID and security settings for the second router, we should not set any parameters on the laptop while we are close to the emission source.

Moreover, as has just expanded the range of an existing wireless network and not create a new, all shared folders, libraries of music, pictures and other files will be accessible from all computers and mobile devices connected to the home network.

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