There is no doubt that the cell phone has become in recent years in one of the technologies most commonly used daily by millions of people around the world. Almost thirty years of constant evolution in personal mobile communications have allowed this device become an essential part in the everyday development of any activity undertaken by the individual.
Nor is it less true that along with Internet, cell phones have become one of the indispensable elements for the social life of any person, and that is precisely because these fabulous devices brings to the users a variety of benefits, which are increasing minute by minute in the new models that they are released daily, where additional functions are included to provide a complete service to the consumer.
Today we can not only communicate with someone in a conventional manner, like we used to with the traditional telephone, but also the mobile phones have given us the possibility to meet other types of communication, such as the text messages and multimedia messages, so popular these days.
Moreover, we cannot fail to mention the inclusion of new platforms such as Internet and incorporating different modes of connectivity between devices, as well not to mention the added benefits that have begun to include over the years cell phones.
With a mobile phone not only we struck up a communication, but we can also take pictures, capture video, surf the Internet, play games, listen to music and endless tasks that today can develop with virtually any model of cell.
For all this, while adding the progress in relation to the technology behind the physical appearance of the equipment, such as the incorporation of modern multi-touch screens, virtual keyboards and so on, the cell phone has become much more than its name suggests, to become a true multifunction device.
Basic operation of cell phone
Before starting this exciting journey, it is important to briefly highlight how operates this complex technology behind something as mundane as cellular telephony.
This platform operates using radio waves, which allow you to perform communication operations from the cell phone to the base antenna that will rebroadcast the communication to another point. Thus, it is possible engage in various forms of communication, such as conventional talk through a call, send and receive text message, in addition to the most modern features that allow us to stay connected.
The beginnings of cellular telephony
According to expert opinion, the pioneers in the field of mobile telephony for civilian use began to walk his path of development in the early 40s, when in the United States they glimpsed the great advantages that could potentially report the use of this technology in everyday lives of citizens.
So it was that in the twilight of the 40s they began to be used analog radio systems, which worked by amplitude modulation, i.e. on AM frequencies, and then start using frequency modulation, FM waves, thus achieving so a wider range of accuracy of the service.
In those early days, they were used the HF and VHF bands, in order to offer the population a means of mobile communication, they could carry with them to leave their homes and offices, what it means to have a constant and uninterrupted communication.
However, those principles of mobile telephony, consumer response was not entirely satisfactory. This is mainly due to the excessive size and weight of the first cellular telephone equipment, and of course the high price of this devices, that are beyond the financial reach of the American middle class. One of the first companies that started in the mobile telephony market in those days was Bell, through its new service called Bell System Service.
Usually such devices were designed to be used only in cars, because these devices must be mounted in the trunk of the vehicle, mainly because of its size and weight. From here a cable that reaches the receiver arranged in the passenger compartment of the vehicle is mounted.
Despite its unpopularity, the equipment remained in place for decades, precisely from 1946 until 1985, when finally reached an important technological change, which allowed that the mobile communications evolve rapidly.
Changes in cell technology
1G: First generation
Already in the XXI century, if you observe equipment such as cell phones belonging to the era of technology 1G, surely will think that really are too large, heavy and cumbersome, compared with today’s standards.
However, it is important to note that in the decade of the 80s these devices represented an unprecedented development in mobile communications, and for its time meant a breakthrough, because from the so-called first generation, cell phones became smaller, allowing users to move their communications equipment.
Moreover, this radical change marked the beginning of personal communications, as from the use of 1G system, the cellular phones could be used individually by one person.
The arrival of the first generation came in 1981, when the prestigious Ericsson launched the Nordic Mobile Telephony 450 MHz system, known by its acronym NMT 450, which operated using analog radio channels through modulation FM frequency. Thus it arose the first step to achieve achieve modern and sophisticated mobile phone systems used today.
In the same decade, precisely in 1986, the same company incorporated new advances to the communication system, managing to bring the device to the level NMT 900, that while work similar to the previous version way, the fact remains that could reach frequencies higher, which meant an opening of the market for mobile telephony.
The amplitude of the frequencies was not only make possible to provide the mobile personal communications service to a significant number of users, but also kicked off for technological development to improve the portability of telephone equipment.
Note that in addition to the system created by Ericsson, simultaneously were other developments, such as the Advanced Mobile Phone System and Total Access System comunication system, but did not achieve the overwhelming success of NMT.
2G: Second generation
After several investigations to further improve the features and services that are afforded in the field of mobile communications to the mid-80s, the technology underwent a profound change with the emergence of the so-called second generation, known as 2G.
The origin of the 2G system took place in the early 90s, when different technologies were incorporated to improve mobile communications, including GSM, IS-136, IS-95 and iDEN systems.
Note that the change from 1G to 2G was an important step in the world of mobile telephony, since communications managed to reach outstanding quality, thanks to the use of frequencies 900 and 1800 MHz.
However, his most significant point was undoubtedly the move towards digitization of communications, which failed to reach mobile excellent voice quality, truly superior to analog communications.
Moreover, through innovation in digitization, it became possible to significantly improve the level of security, providing users with an effective system that will secure your privacy.
Of course, the introduction of 2G system made it possible to simplify the manufacturing of cell phones, which reduced their size and began to be made with cheaper materials, which meant a real reduction in manufacturing costs, and thus arose increased consumption of the devices, which began marketing at affordable values for the general public.
With the advent of 2G system they arose different mobile communication standards, such as D-AMPS in the United States, PDC in Japan, CDMA One in America and Asia and the popular GSM, that over the years it became the system universal.
With the advent of second-generation technology to the world of mobile communications, also he landed on portable devices the popular GSM mobile phone system, acronym of “Global System for Mobile communications”.
This technology led to significant improvements in relation to mobile communications, since the system was developed based on a series of specific parameters focused on that objective.
Thanks to the implementation of the GSM system in the early 90s, mobile telephony achieved, among other things, provide a real voice quality achieved through digital processing of communications, allow manufacture of more portable and economic cell phones, and compatibility with the integrated services digital network (ISDN).
Moreover, with the subsequent implementation of such technology internationally as a universal standard for mobile communications, the birth of a truly competitive mobile phone market, which led to numerous companies such as telephone operators and device manufacturers became possible.
As usual with standards born within technology, while the GSM system for years met the expectations raised, the truth is that after a while became an obsolete system, which only allowed access to a service voice and low speed data transfer, only 9.6 Kbps.
Consider that for the mid-90s, the cell phone market really need another significant development that would include multimedia services, so that more data transfer capacity was needed.
So it was that he began working on developing a new generation of mobile communications, so-called 3G, would use CDMA technology, which for the time was developing, so it was decided to transform the 2G and include updating and necessary changes, leading to an intermediate system, the so-called transitional generation.
2.5G: The transition generation
With the arrival of the transitional generation, who gave a preliminary step while waiting for 3G, major changes in the field of cell phones were introduced, increasing the services offered by 2G.
Thanks to the advent of 2.5G, the mobile devices includes two new services. On the one hand the system called EMS, which basically was an improved messaging service, which among its features allowed within messages include some tunes and icons. To this end, the EMS were based on what later would be the SMS.
Furthermore, the MMS service, his name stands for Multimedia Messaging System, which It includes the possibility of including images, sounds, text and videos, using GPRS technology was incorporated.
With the addition of these two innovative services in mobile communications, the transition generation required the addition of two new technologies: GPRS and EDGE.
Notably, the GPRS system, acronym of “General Packet Radio Service”, offers a data transfer rate of 56 kbps to 114 kbps, while EDGE, also know as “Enhaced Data rates for GSM Evolution”, can achieve 384 Kbps speed transfer.
3G: Third generation
With the advent of the third generation, the result of research to achieve increase the capacity of transmission and reception of data, in addition to obtaining a higher level of security in communications, it was possible to have the ability to connect to the Internet with all its use provides advantages for users.
Thanks to these developments, it is possible to achieve transmission speeds higher than 7.2 Mbit / s data, which favored the emergence of novel cell deployments, such as downloading of program content, video call services, messaging Instant and use e-mail, among many others.
While the expansion of 3G technology was slow at first, the truth is that has now been widely accepted and steady progress enabled the development of a new system, called UMTS “Universal Mobile Telecommunications System”.
The UMTS system is the immediate successor of the GSM technology, which due to the lack of certain technical specifications to provide services such as streaming video and audio in real time, complex multimedia features and better quality of sound voice, not may evolve properly accompanying the development of third generation mobile, points does meet this new standard.
This new technology, although it was designed for use in mobile phones, it can also be incorporated into other types of portable devices.
For its operation, the UMTS system is based on the use of CDMA technology, allowing you to develop data transmission rates up to 7.2 Mbits / s
4G: The fourth generation
There is no doubt that the implementation of this new standard for mobile communications has revolutionized the way we use the telephone, allowing us to do things that were previously impossible to perform if we were not near a computer. Of course this has much to do with the performance and power of modern smart phones, which can take full advantage of the speed offered by 4G to send and receive data.
The coming to market this technology offers a user experience quite successful with any provision that requests, including registration services like Spotify, Netflix or Google Music to enjoy audio content and TV series or HD movies without cuts, thanks to the high speed that can reach the standard, without need for a source of nearby Wi-Fi signal.
Also it gives SMEs the possibility of having any kind of cloud services, today indispensable platform for any business or company that wants to stay in the market.
As we can see, with the advantages that 4G offers associated with the speed you can achieve, theoretically 100 Mbits / s moving to the incredible figure of 1 Gb / s at rest, we can manage with much more ease than before, and obtain benefit almost impossible with the previous generation, 3G.
Besides the factor related to increasing the speed and convergence that offers the system, another important point to note it is that the new standard provides higher levels of service quality throughout the communication, i.e., it is provided security coverage between the two ends of the terminals.