4G

The Cellphone

Cell phones are so called because the physical area basically covering are a formatted cells. The origin of the cell phone is said that was way back in 1973 when the electronics company consumer Motorola launched the first portable cell phone, which was marketed under the name of Motorola DynaTAC 8000X.

Currently, the number of cell phone models entering the market is almost incalculable, and its sales generates hundreds of billions of dollars a year, so today is considered as the most used electronic device in the world.

The Cellphone

As we can see in any city or town, it is almost impossible to find a person without a cell phone or smartphone in hand, such is the degree of penetration that this device has reached between us, and it is no wonder, because thanks to the tasks which he is able to meet, and the number of important built in functions, we can improve our lifestyle, increasing our productivity and reducing times.

This last decade has seen the birth of the smartphone as we know it today, mixing computer and cell phone offers features with which we could not even dream at the time that was fashionable the Nokia 3210, for example.

But to know more about the smartphone and technology, click on this link.

What hardware integrates a cell phone?

The parts of a traditional cell phone are:

  • Circuit board
  • Antenna
  • Keyboard
  • LCD Screen (Liquid Crystal Display)
  • Battery
  • Microphone
  • Speaker

The Cellphone

Functions of a cell phone

Cell phones have a variety of functions. To name a few, depending on the type of cell phone:

  • Store contact information
  • Manage an agenda of commitments to date
  • Send and receive e-mails
  • 3d games
  • Send and receive text messages
  • Surf websites
  • Play mp3 and other audio formats
  • Play video and TV online
  • GPS service and maps of most cities in the world
  • Integration with other devices such as GPS receiver

The Cellphone

How a cell phone works?

Cell phones, operating on radio frequency, innovated to minimize the availability of RF spectrum. Now, several cell phone towers antennas are used to cover a large geographical area. Each tower (base station) covers a circular area called cell. A large geographic region is divided into a number of cells, allowing different base stations use the same channels / frequencies for communication.

Another important aspect of this division in cells, is that cell phones need less power to transmit to reach any base station and covering a smaller area. Reducing the energy required for transmission, battery size and weight is reduced accordingly. This contributes to the reduction in size of cell phones would not be possible without the cellular technology.

When you use your cell phone, your phone locates first base with the strongest signal station and requests a channel. The base station allows access to the channel and the call is then accepted. The call is then sent to the local telephone network if the call is for a common phone, otherwise will be transmitted by the mobile network.

The Cellphone

When the cell phone is connected, the SID (System Identification Code) in the control channel is equivalent to the SID the phone. If the SID is identified, the phone understands that the cell is communicating with the local system. The phone sends a registration request, along with the SID and the MTSO keeps the course of the phone’s location in the database. If the control does not identify the SID of your phone, then your phone is roaming.

Major cell phone manufacturers

Most popular cell phone models on the market are produced by Nokia, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, Samsung, LG and Alcatel, among many others.

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Everything you need to know before buying a Tablet

While some time ago the Tablet PC concept was aimed at those consumers with greater purchasing power, because only the leading brands offer this product on the market, as the case of the Apple iPad, the fact is that in the last years the furor over this new technological article led to the emergence of economic tablets developed by recognized brands, and the emergence of hundreds of models of completely unknown brands, most of Chinese origin.

However, given the wide variety of brands, models and prices that can be found in the tablet market, it is often difficult to know which of all these products we can buy assures us that is truly suited to our needs and requirements. So here are some of the fundamental aspects to consider when buying a tablet, either brand or those known as generic.

Buy a tablet

Prerequisites

An aspect that in principle we should evaluate is the autonomy offered by the device. Consider that a tablet is purely portable, so the battery life plays here a more important role. Therefore, it is best to choose a product that offers us at least six hours of battery life at least.

It is also important to include the charger, as some generic brands does not include this accessory with the tablet, what forces us to buy the charger separately, increasing the final value of the product.

However, at present the charger is not a must-have accessory, thanks to mini USB connectors included in most modern tablets, which allow charging the device from any USB port.

The operating System

Another major aspect focuses on the preinstalled operating system. On which it is advisable to opt for tablets including Android 4.4 minimum. At this point it is advisable to buy a tablet that has at least version 4.4 of Android, although in the case of a much earlier version, it is still possible to obtain a very important benefit of them. It is noteworthy that the most recent version of android is 6.0 Marshmallow.

Buy a tablet

It is also possible, by not having the latest Android operating system, that these devices are cheaper.

Also, for some time, we have available in the tablet market with Windows 10 preinstalled as operating system, at a very attractive price and good hardware, which assures us that we can use most of the applications we use on PC Microsoft Office as well as other tools such as connection to a local network and others.

But, why the operating system becomes so important? Well, primarily by applications available to them and compatibility with the other devices we have. Consider that the functionality of the new device will depend largely on the possibility of finding tools for each of the tasks we do with the tablet.

Buy a tablet

If we are users of the services of Google, and we have a Chromebook, Android phone and other devices to fully exploit tools Google, we should not hesitate a second: The best choice is an Android tablet, due to compatibility between different Android devices we have.

Now, if we are not completely tied to Google, a tablet with Windows 10 will be a good choice, as it will behave like a notebook.

Other considerations

Besides the type of operating system, autonomy and other technical aspects, we must consider other points, that although they are not essential to the proper functioning of the tablet, can orient itself a purchase to a particular type of device.

It is essential that the tablet give us the possibility to connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi, and it is worth thinking about purchasing a tablet that also support the 3G or 4G protocol.

Other considerations to consider are the size and weight of the device, as sometimes be enough motive for us to decide not to buy a particular model. It is therefore essential that we evaluate the use we will give to the tablet, so on that basis also choose a team of 7-inch or a 10 inch, as this varies considerably weight and size of the device.

Buy a tablet

The same goes for the autonomy of the device. While more autonomy possesses a battery, this will be larger, and therefore have greater weight.

In this sense, the ideal for those who plan to use the tablet as a calendar, to read books, check email, surf the Internet, use social networks and others, most recommended devices are the 7-inch tablets, while for those who used the computer to viewing videos and movies or to play it is advisable to try a 10-inch tablet.

Beyond the size we have chosen to the screen of the tablet, it is best to opt for a tablet whose screen is of the capacitive type, because it offers us a truly productive and pleasant tactile experience. Either way, find a tablet or phone with resistive screen today is almost impossible.

On the other hand, if we have a device that meets our requirements, we observe and analyze the kind of speed offered by the processor of the tablet, and at this point we should not acquire a tablet that run at a slower speed of 1.4 GHz. Also should include 1 Gb. of RAM minimum.

Another important aspect to consider is the storage capacity that holds the tablet that we will buy. It should be noted that most of this type of equipment includes an internal memory, which it should not be less than 8 Gb, and also offer the possibility to expand the storage capacity with micro SD cards, so you should endure at least 32 Gb card.

Buy a tablet

Note that if we are users usually store many files like documents, music and video, eventually the storage space provided with the tablet will be insufficient.

That is why if it is within our budget, we buy the tablet with greater storage capacity possible. Another alternative is to make sure that the tablet possesses the necessary memory cards support 64 Gb or more.

Dispensable requirements

As we all know, there are certain aspects that prove to be the least important in the assessment of the tablet that we will buy. In this sense, we can say that the camera is one of them, since it is actually possible that only we use for videoconferencing. In short, the quality of the cameras that incorporate tablets can never be compared to the quality offered for digital compact or video digital cameras.

Buy a tablet

Therefore, if we find a tablet that interests us and has a camera of poor 1.3 megapixel, this is not a subject that should persuade purchase.

Another aspect is the inclusion of a TV tuner, as well as the possibility of playing video in three dimensions, as to enjoy the 3D, we connect the tablet to a TV that has this technology.

Some accessories

When buying a tablet, we should not forget to add to its value the acquisition of a series of accessories which are indispensable to us. One of them, as we have already mentioned above, is buying a micro SD card of at least 8 Gb memory, which currently has a value of around u$s 8, depending on the quality, brand and speed.

Moreover, it is important to mention that most of the tablets, especially 7-inch, do not have USB ports standard, and instead include a mini USB port. In this case, we must also purchase a mini USB to USB adapter to connect, for example, a flash drive to the device. The present value of this accessory is around u$s 4.

Buy a tablet

For those who wish to use the tablet to make drawings, an essential element will be the purchase of a stylus, but not everyone, because if we buy a tablet with capacitive screen, we buy a suitable stylus for this technology, which today has a value of approximately u$s 10.

Of course, being a portable device, it is logical that once we get our hands on the new tablet, we begin to carry the gear to everywhere, so a bag becomes a critical part of your device accessories. We can find simple bags from u$s15, and bags which also includes the keyboard from u$s 40.

With the connecting cables is the same. To cut costs, manufacturers of economic tablets currently almost no added accessories, and adding generally are of poor quality, which does not mean that the tablet is poorly constructed.

Buy a tablet

This shortcoming in the accessories can be easily solved by replacing the accessories that came in the box of the tablet by others of better quality. Fortunately, on the market we have a wide variety of accessories for tablets and smartphones, including holsters, USB connection cables, headphones and chargers at prices that fit any budget.

You have a tablet? What model? What are for you the advantages and disadvantages of this device?

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The types of Internet connection

Internet is part of everyday life of many people. It is a source of research for some, or leisure and work for others. The vast computer network expands at high speed, and it is impossible try to stop it. Such is the utility that is able to lend, which since the 60s, date of creation of Internet, until today, have developed various ways to connect to it through multiple media, trying each time to improve its performance and ease access, to bring it to mass audiences.

Nevertheless, this diversity of access methods Internet also brings with it still coexist many ways to access to Internet, many of which have been forgotten and unused for having been overtaken in terms of speed and capacity. This obviously lends itself to confusion, and that is why this article will find everything you need to understand which are the connection possibilities, how works each of the connections, and what are their main advantages and disadvantages.

Types of internet connections

Telephone line connection

Also called dial-up, is the oldest method of connection and was the only used when the Internet was in its infancy. Access is made by the user via a modem and telephone line. This type of connection is used less and less, since the data transmission capacity does not exceed 56 kbps, which makes navigation very slow. With the popularization of services of broadband access with affordable prices, the dial-up access is virtually extinct.

Besides of the low speed operation, dial-up connection is not stable and keeps busy telephone line when connected to the Internet. That is, or surfing the internet or talking on the phone. Regardless of the time at which you access the Internet, the telephone bill costs may increase considerably.

Types of internet connections

On the other hand, it is the simplest connection. It only takes one phone line available, a PC with modem, and an ISP free or payment. In the case of paid access, they offer different plans with limits of hours of navigation and access to limited or unlimited data. We must remember that the quality and stability of free access providers may be less than payment providers.

xDSL connection

The xDSL connection is provided through the conventional telephone network, but it is different to dial-up access. A modem converts this information into an electrical signal and separates it into a different frequency than that used by the voice, thus the data signal does not interfere with telephone use. This means that you can surf the Internet and use the phone at the same time. However, it is good to remember that it is necessary that the PC have an Ethernet network board.

The xDSL service operates by hiring an access provider, like dial-up, and you can access services with different speeds. For example, in the ADSL, the speed varies from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps; in ADSL2 or ADSL2 + ranging from 256 kbps up to 24 Mbps; in the VDSL you can reach a speed of 52 Mbps and up to 100 Mbps VDSL2. Despite the popularity of this type of access is not available everywhere.

Types of internet connections

The xDLS has the disadvantage that it is a shared service, navigation can be slower at peak times when many users use the service simultaneously.

Cable TV connection

The cable connection is increasingly popular and uses the same infrastructure as the service cable TV, which facilitates installation. Many cable television services offers in the package access to Internet with different speeds. In this case, data from the Internet and cable TV are transmitted through a single cable, then the signals are separated by a device called a splitter. From there we took a cable for TV and the other for Internet.

One of the advantages of this type of connection is that just simply connect the cable modem to the computer to be connected without the need to dial or activate a service. Please note that for this function, the PC Ethernet network card must be installed. Obviously, this type of access is possible only in regions where there are cable television services.

Types of internet connections

This type of access is available in different types of speeds. Browsing speed, and limit downloads and uploads data, depend exclusively on the package we have hired. Moreover, the speed is not affected by the number of users or the time of the day when the service is used. Unlike the xDSL access, the user will always have the same speed access at any time.

Satellite connection

Another alternative is satellite connection, for which specific teams that usually have a very high cost are required. You must purchase an antenna able to capture the satellite signal and transmit it to the computer with an internal or external modem receiver. In some cases, the antenna is provided by the service provider itself. This type of internet access, has plans that offer speeds ranging from 512 kbs to 2 Mbps.

Types of internet connections

One advantage of the satellite connection is that access is not dependent on the location. This way you will have access to internet anywhere where coverage comes. However, the more remote the place where we are, the stronger the signal.

Radio connection (Wireless)

Internet access radio is a way to extend a broadband connection somewhere where there are no service. That point can be anything from a small restricted area, such as an office, to a complete city. For that you need to configure a wireless network. Included in this mode, the Wi-Fi and Wi-Max.

One of the advantages of the radio connection is the possibility of sharing access and ensuring mobility to users. The basic infrastructure requires a delivery point internet service, which can be a wired, xDSL or satellite, modem compatible with the service, an Access Point (kind of radio) and computers with receiver or wireless network adapter for pick up the signal.

Types of internet connections

When sharing a high-capacity connection, users can split the costs, while the service guarantees a permanent and low cost of installation and maintenance connection. However, the simultaneous use for downloads may impair access.

Mobile telephone connections via 3G and 4G connections

The internet through cell phones is getting better. The arrival of 3G internet connection provided broadband cell phones with a previously unimaginable speed. However, the best, at least until today, is the appearance on the market of the 4G standard, which can receive and send data at speeds impossible to reach previously , giving us the ability to watch videos in HD quality listen to music directly from the cloud, among others.

Types of internet connections

Mobility is a major advantage of such services. For GSM networks, the transfer rate can reach 800 kbps. In the case of CDMA networks, the transfer can reach speeds up to 2 Mbps.

These numbers are largely superseded when our phone is compatible with 3G or 4G, which can far exceed these figures, reaching in the case of 3G to 2 Mbps, and in the case of 4G to 200 Mbps.

PLC (Power Line Communications)

Undoubtedly, the PLC technology (Power Line Communications) is one of the most interesting forms of connection that are mentioned in this article, because it uses power lines to transmit data at high speed.

Types of internet connections

Today is one of the alternative connection systems most used by users worldwide, as among many of the benefits it offers, is the possibility of using the electrical wiring in any home for exchanging data between nodes on a local network, with the convenience of not having to invest in the many meters of network cable necessary to mount it, something that appreciate many homes and small businesses.

Now it only remains to choose the connection mode to access the Internet and enjoy.

The Cell Phone History

There is no doubt that the cell phone has become in recent years in one of the technologies most commonly used daily by millions of people around the world. Almost thirty years of constant evolution in personal mobile communications have allowed this device become an essential part in the everyday development of any activity undertaken by the individual.

Nor is it less true that along with Internet, cell phones have become one of the indispensable elements for the social life of any person, and that is precisely because these fabulous devices brings to the users a variety of benefits, which are increasing minute by minute in the new models that they are released daily, where additional functions are included to provide a complete service to the consumer.

Cell phone history

Today we can not only communicate with someone in a conventional manner, like we used to with the traditional telephone, but also the mobile phones have given us the possibility to meet other types of communication, such as the text messages and multimedia messages, so popular these days.

Moreover, we cannot fail to mention the inclusion of new platforms such as Internet and incorporating different modes of connectivity between devices, as well not to mention the added benefits that have begun to include over the years cell phones.

With a mobile phone not only we struck up a communication, but we can also take pictures, capture video, surf the Internet, play games, listen to music and endless tasks that today can develop with virtually any model of cell.

For all this, while adding the progress in relation to the technology behind the physical appearance of the equipment, such as the incorporation of modern multi-touch screens, virtual keyboards and so on, the cell phone has become much more than its name suggests, to become a true multifunction device.

Cell phone history

Basic operation of cell phone

Before starting this exciting journey, it is important to briefly highlight how operates this complex technology behind something as mundane as cellular telephony.

This platform operates using radio waves, which allow you to perform communication operations from the cell phone to the base antenna that will rebroadcast the communication to another point. Thus, it is possible engage in various forms of communication, such as conventional talk through a call, send and receive text message, in addition to the most modern features that allow us to stay connected.

The beginnings of cellular telephony

According to expert opinion, the pioneers in the field of mobile telephony for civilian use began to walk his path of development in the early 40s, when in the United States they glimpsed the great advantages that could potentially report the use of this technology in everyday lives of citizens.

So it was that in the twilight of the 40s they began to be used analog radio systems, which worked by amplitude modulation, i.e. on AM frequencies, and then start using frequency modulation, FM waves, thus achieving so a wider range of accuracy of the service.

In those early days, they were used the HF and VHF bands, in order to offer the population a means of mobile communication, they could carry with them to leave their homes and offices, what it means to have a constant and uninterrupted communication.

Cell phone history

However, those principles of mobile telephony, consumer response was not entirely satisfactory. This is mainly due to the excessive size and weight of the first cellular telephone equipment, and of course the high price of this devices, that are beyond the financial reach of the American middle class. One of the first companies that started in the mobile telephony market in those days was Bell, through its new service called Bell System Service.

Usually such devices were designed to be used only in cars, because these devices must be mounted in the trunk of the vehicle, mainly because of its size and weight. From here a cable that reaches the receiver arranged in the passenger compartment of the vehicle is mounted.

Despite its unpopularity, the equipment remained in place for decades, precisely from 1946 until 1985, when finally reached an important technological change, which allowed that the mobile communications evolve rapidly.

Changes in cell technology

1G: First generation

Already in the XXI century, if you observe equipment such as cell phones belonging to the era of technology 1G, surely will think that really are too large, heavy and cumbersome, compared with today’s standards.

However, it is important to note that in the decade of the 80s these devices represented an unprecedented development in mobile communications, and for its time meant a breakthrough, because from the so-called first generation, cell phones became smaller, allowing users to move their communications equipment.

Cell phone history

Moreover, this radical change marked the beginning of personal communications, as from the use of 1G system, the cellular phones could be used individually by one person.

The arrival of the first generation came in 1981, when the prestigious Ericsson launched the Nordic Mobile Telephony 450 MHz system, known by its acronym NMT 450, which operated using analog radio channels through modulation FM frequency. Thus it arose the first step to achieve achieve modern and sophisticated mobile phone systems used today.

In the same decade, precisely in 1986, the same company incorporated new advances to the communication system, managing to bring the device to the level NMT 900, that while work similar to the previous version way, the fact remains that could reach frequencies higher, which meant an opening of the market for mobile telephony.

The amplitude of the frequencies was not only make possible to provide the mobile personal communications service to a significant number of users, but also kicked off for technological development to improve the portability of telephone equipment.

Note that in addition to the system created by Ericsson, simultaneously were other developments, such as the Advanced Mobile Phone System and Total Access System comunication system, but did not achieve the overwhelming success of NMT.

Cell phone history

2G: Second generation

After several investigations to further improve the features and services that are afforded in the field of mobile communications to the mid-80s, the technology underwent a profound change with the emergence of the so-called second generation, known as 2G.

The origin of the 2G system took place in the early 90s, when different technologies were incorporated to improve mobile communications, including GSM, IS-136, IS-95 and iDEN systems.

Note that the change from 1G to 2G was an important step in the world of mobile telephony, since communications managed to reach outstanding quality, thanks to the use of frequencies 900 and 1800 MHz.

However, his most significant point was undoubtedly the move towards digitization of communications, which failed to reach mobile excellent voice quality, truly superior to analog communications.

Moreover, through innovation in digitization, it became possible to significantly improve the level of security, providing users with an effective system that will secure your privacy.

Of course, the introduction of 2G system made it possible to simplify the manufacturing of cell phones, which reduced their size and began to be made with cheaper materials, which meant a real reduction in manufacturing costs, and thus arose increased consumption of the devices, which began marketing at affordable values ​​for the general public.

With the advent of 2G system they arose different mobile communication standards, such as D-AMPS in the United States, PDC in Japan, CDMA One in America and Asia and the popular GSM, that over the years it became the system universal.

GSM Technology

With the advent of second-generation technology to the world of mobile communications, also he landed on portable devices the popular GSM mobile phone system, acronym of “Global System for Mobile communications”.

Cell phone history

This technology led to significant improvements in relation to mobile communications, since the system was developed based on a series of specific parameters focused on that objective.

Thanks to the implementation of the GSM system in the early 90s, mobile telephony achieved, among other things, provide a real voice quality achieved through digital processing of communications, allow manufacture of more portable and economic cell phones, and compatibility with the integrated services digital network (ISDN).

Moreover, with the subsequent implementation of such technology internationally as a universal standard for mobile communications, the birth of a truly competitive mobile phone market, which led to numerous companies such as telephone operators and device manufacturers became possible.

As usual with standards born within technology, while the GSM system for years met the expectations raised, the truth is that after a while became an obsolete system, which only allowed access to a service voice and low speed data transfer, only 9.6 Kbps.

Consider that for the mid-90s, the cell phone market really need another significant development that would include multimedia services, so that more data transfer capacity was needed.

Cell phone history

So it was that he began working on developing a new generation of mobile communications, so-called 3G, would use CDMA technology, which for the time was developing, so it was decided to transform the 2G and include updating and necessary changes, leading to an intermediate system, the so-called transitional generation.

2.5G: The transition generation

With the arrival of the transitional generation, who gave a preliminary step while waiting for 3G, major changes in the field of cell phones were introduced, increasing the services offered by 2G.

Thanks to the advent of 2.5G, the mobile devices includes two new services. On the one hand the system called EMS, which basically was an improved messaging service, which among its features allowed within messages include some tunes and icons. To this end, the EMS were based on what later would be the SMS.

Furthermore, the MMS service, his name stands for Multimedia Messaging System, which It includes the possibility of including images, sounds, text and videos, using GPRS technology was incorporated.

With the addition of these two innovative services in mobile communications, the transition generation required the addition of two new technologies: GPRS and EDGE.

Notably, the GPRS system, acronym of “General Packet Radio Service”, offers a data transfer rate of 56 kbps to 114 kbps, while EDGE, also know as “Enhaced Data rates for GSM Evolution”, can achieve 384 Kbps speed transfer.

Cell phone history

3G: Third generation

With the advent of the third generation, the result of research to achieve increase the capacity of transmission and reception of data, in addition to obtaining a higher level of security in communications, it was possible to have the ability to connect to the Internet with all its use provides advantages for users.

Thanks to these developments, it is possible to achieve transmission speeds higher than 7.2 Mbit / s data, which favored the emergence of novel cell deployments, such as downloading of program content, video call services, messaging Instant and use e-mail, among many others.

While the expansion of 3G technology was slow at first, the truth is that has now been widely accepted and steady progress enabled the development of a new system, called UMTS “Universal Mobile Telecommunications System”.

The UMTS system is the immediate successor of the GSM technology, which due to the lack of certain technical specifications to provide services such as streaming video and audio in real time, complex multimedia features and better quality of sound voice, not may evolve properly accompanying the development of third generation mobile, points does meet this new standard.

This new technology, although it was designed for use in mobile phones, it can also be incorporated into other types of portable devices.

For its operation, the UMTS system is based on the use of CDMA technology, allowing you to develop data transmission rates up to 7.2 Mbits / s

4G: The fourth generation

There is no doubt that the implementation of this new standard for mobile communications has revolutionized the way we use the telephone, allowing us to do things that were previously impossible to perform if we were not near a computer. Of course this has much to do with the performance and power of modern smart phones, which can take full advantage of the speed offered by 4G to send and receive data.

Cell phone history

The coming to market this technology offers a user experience quite successful with any provision that requests, including registration services like Spotify, Netflix or Google Music to enjoy audio content and TV series or HD movies without cuts, thanks to the high speed that can reach the standard, without need for a source of nearby Wi-Fi signal.

Also it gives SMEs the possibility of having any kind of cloud services, today indispensable platform for any business or company that wants to stay in the market.

As we can see, with the advantages that 4G offers associated with the speed you can achieve, theoretically 100 Mbits / s moving to the incredible figure of 1 Gb / s at rest, we can manage with much more ease than before, and obtain benefit almost impossible with the previous generation, 3G.

Besides the factor related to increasing the speed and convergence that offers the system, another important point to note it is that the new standard provides higher levels of service quality throughout the communication, i.e., it is provided security coverage between the two ends of the terminals.